Wetlands Ecology and Management

, Volume 19, Issue 4, pp 295–316 | Cite as

Hydrologic and geomorphic considerations in restoration of river-floodplain connectivity in a highly altered river system, Lower Missouri River, USA

  • Robert B. Jacobson
  • Tyler P. Janke
  • Jason J. Skold
Original Paper

Abstract

Planning for restoration of river-floodplain systems requires understanding how often and how much of a floodplain may be inundated, and how likely the floodplain is to retain the water once flooded. These factors depend fundamentally on hydrology and geomorphology of the channel and floodplain. We discuss application of an index of river-floodplain connectivity, the Land Capability Potential Index (LCPI), to regional-scale restoration planning along 600 km of the Lower Missouri River. The LCPI integrates modeled water-surface elevations, floodplain topography, and soils to index relative wetness of floodplain patches. Geomorphic adjustment of the Lower Missouri River to impoundment and channel engineering has altered the natural relations among hydrology, geomorphology, and floodplain soils, and has resulted in a regional upstream to downstream gradient in connectivity potential. As a result, flow-regime management is limited in its capacity to restore floodplain ecosystems. The LCPI provides a tool for identifying and mapping floodplain restoration potential, accounting for the geomorphic adjustment. Using simple criteria, we illustrate the utility of LCPI-like approaches in regional planning for restoration of plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides) communities, hydrologically connected floodplain wetlands, and seasonal floodplain wetlands.

Keywords

Wetland restoration Fluvial geomorphology Flow regime Dams Cottonwoods 

References

  1. Aikman JM (1929) Distribution and structure of the forests of eastern Nebraska. University of Nebraska Studies 26:1–75Google Scholar
  2. Amoros C, Bornette G (2002) Connectivity and biocomplexity in waterbodies of riverine floodplains. Freshw Biol 47(4):761–776. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2427.2002.00905.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baptist MJ, Penning WE, Duel H, Smits AJM, Geerling GW, Van der Lee GEM, Van Alphen JSL (2004) Assessment of the effects of cyclic floodplain rejuvenation on flood levels and biodiversity along the Rhine River. River Res Appl 20:285–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bluemle JP (1972) Pleistocene drainage development in North Dakota. Geol Soc Am Bull 83:2189–2194. doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1972)83[2189:pddind]2.0.co;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bragg TB, Tatschl AK (1977) Changes in flood-plain vegetation, land use along the Missouri River from 1826 to 1972. Environ Manage 1(4):343–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brinson MM (1993) A hydrogeomorphic classifciation for wetlands. Wetlands Research Program Technical Report WRP-DE-4. US Army Corps of Engineers Waterways Experiment Station, VicksburgGoogle Scholar
  7. Chadwick OA, Chorover J (2001) The chemistry of pedogenic thresholds. Geoderma 100(3–4):321–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Collier M, Webb RH, Schmidt JC (1996) Dams, Rivers: a primer on the downstream effects of dams: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1126. US Geological Survey, TucsonGoogle Scholar
  9. Cornu S, Montagne D, Vasconcelos PM (2009) Dating constituent formation in soils to determine rates of soil processes: a review. Geoderma 153(3–4):293–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Daniels RB, Hammer RD (1992) Soil geomorphology. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. Dixon MD, Johnson WC, Scott ML, Bowen D (2010) Status and trend of cottonwood forests along the Missouri River: final report to the US Army Corps of Engineers. University of South Dakota, Vermillion. doi:10.1672/0277-5212(2003)023[0125:EOFPOR]2.0.CO;2
  12. Elliott CM, Jacobson RB (2006) Geomorphic classification and assessment of channel dynamics in the Missouri National Recreational River, South Dakota and Nebraska. US Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2006-5313. USGS Scientific Investigations, VermillionGoogle Scholar
  13. Federal Emergency Management Agency (2003) Guidelines and specifications for flood hazard mapping partners. Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  14. Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group (1998) Stream corridor restoration; principles, processes, practices. USDA, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  15. Ferrell J (1996) Soundings–100 years of the Missouri River navigation project. US Army Corps of Engineers, OmahaGoogle Scholar
  16. Funk JL, Robinson JW (1974) Changes in the channel of the Lower Missouri River and effects on fish and wildlife. Missouri Department of Conservation, Jefferson CityGoogle Scholar
  17. Galat DL, Lipkin R (2000) Restoring ecological integrity of great rivers: historical hydrographs aid in defining reference conditions for the Missouri River. Hydrobiologia 422:29–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Galat DL, Fredrickson LH, Humburg DD, Bataille KJ, Bodie JR, Dohrenwend J, Gelwicks GT, Havel JE, Helmers DL, Hooker JB, Jones JR, Knowlton MF, Kubisiak J, Mazourek J, McColpin AC, Renken RB, Semlitsch RD (1998) Flooding to restore connectivity of regulated, large-river wetlands–natural and controlled flooding as complementary processes along the Lower Missouri River. Bioscience 48:721–733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Galat DL, Berry CR Jr, Peters EJ, White RG (2005) Missouri River basin. In: Benke AC, Cushing CE (eds) Rivers of North America. Elsevier, Oxford, pp 427–480Google Scholar
  20. Hallberg GR, Harbaugh JM, Witinok PM (1979) Changes in the channel area of the Missouri River in Iowa, 1879–1976, Iowa Geological Survey Special Report Series. Iowa Geological Survey, IowaGoogle Scholar
  21. Hauer FR, Smith RD (1998) The hydrogeomorphic approach to functional assessment of riparian wetlands: evaluating impacts and mitigation on river floodplains in the USA. Freshw Biol 40(3):517–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Holbrook J, Kliem G, Nzewunwah C, Jobe Z, Goble R (2006) Surficial alluvium and topography of the Overton Bottom North Unit, Big Muddy National Fish and Wildlife Refuge in the Missouri River valley and its potential influence on environmental management. In: Jacobson RB (ed) Science to support adaptive habitat management, Overton Bottoms North Unit, Big Muddy National Fish and Wildlife Refuge, US Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2006-5086. US Geological Survey Scientific Investigations, Missouri, pp 17–32Google Scholar
  23. Hulse D, Gregory S (2004) Integrating resilience into floodplain restoration. Urban Ecosyst 7(3):295–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jacobson RB, Galat DL (2006) Flow and form in rehabilitation of large-river ecosystems: An example from the Lower Missouri River. Geomorphology 77(3–4):249–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jacobson RB, Galat DL (2008) Design of a naturalized flow regime on the Lower Missouri River. Ecohydrology 1(2):81–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Jacobson RB, O’Connor JE, Oguchi T (2003) Surficial geologic tools in fluvial geomorphology. In: Kondolf GM, Piégay H (eds) Tools in fluvial geomorphology. John Wiley and sons, Chichester, pp 25–57Google Scholar
  27. Jacobson RB, Chojnacki KA, Reuter JM (2007) Land capability potential index (LCPI) for the Lower Missouri River valley. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report, VermillionGoogle Scholar
  28. Jacobson RB, Blevins DW, Bitner CJ (2009) Sediment regime constraints on river restoration––an example from the Lower Missouri River. In: James LA, Rathburn SL, Whittecar GR (eds) Management and restoration of fluvial systems with broad historical changes and human impacts, Geological Society of America Special Paper 451. Geological Society of America, Denver, pp 1–22. doi:10.1130/2009.2451(01)
  29. Jenny H (1941) Factors of soil formation. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  30. Johnson WC (1992) Dams and riparian forests: case study from the upper Missouri River. Rivers 3:229–242Google Scholar
  31. Johnson WC (2000) Tree recruitment and survival in rivers: influence of hydrological processes. Hydrol Process 14(16–17):3051–3074Google Scholar
  32. Johnson WC (2002) Riparian vegetation diversity along regulated rivers: contribution of novel and relict habitats. Freshw Biol 47(4):749–759. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2427.2002.00910.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Junk WJ, Bayley PB, Sparks RE (1989) The flood pulse concept in river-floodplain systems. Can Spec Publ Fish Aquat Sci 106:110–127Google Scholar
  34. Kalischuk AR, Rood SB, Mahoney JM (2001) Environmental influences on seedling growth of cottonwood species following a major flood. For Ecol Manag 144(1–3):75–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Karim MF, Holly FM (1986) Simulation of Missouri River bed degradation. J Hydraul Eng 112(6):497–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kelly BP (2006) Hydrologic interactions among rainfall, side-channel chutes, the Missouri River, and ground water at Overton Bottoms North, Missouri, 1998–2004. In: Jacobson RB (ed) Science to support adaptive habitat management: Overton Bottoms North Unit, Big Muddy National Fish and Wildlife Refuge, US Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2006-5086. US Geological Survey Scientific Investigations, Missouri, pp 33–68Google Scholar
  37. King PB, Beikman HM (1974) Geologic map of the United States. US Geological Survey, RestonGoogle Scholar
  38. Klimas C, Murray E, Foti T, Pagan J, Williamson M, Langston H (2009) An ecosystem restoration model for the Mississippi Alluvial Valley based on geomorphology, soils, and hydrology. Wetlands 29(2):430–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Knowlton MF, Jones JR (1997) Trophic status of Missouri River floodplain lakes in relation to basin type and connectivity. Wetlands 17(7):468–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Knox JC (2000) Sensitivity of modern and Holocene floods to climate change. Quat Sci Rev 19:439–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Langbein WB, Schumm SA (1958) Yield of sediment in relation to mean annual precipitation. Am Geophys Union Trans 39:1076–1084Google Scholar
  42. Leopold LB, Wolman MG, Miller JP (1964) Fluvial processes in geomorphology. W.H. Freeman and Co., San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  43. Mahoney JM, Rood SB (1998) Streamflow requirements for cottonwood seedling requirement–an integrative model. Wetlands 18:634–638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. McDonald RR, Nelson JM, Bennett JP (2005) Multi-dimensional surface-water modeling system user’s guide: US Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 6-B2. US Geological Survey, RestonGoogle Scholar
  45. Meade RH (1995) Contaminants in the Mississippi River, 1987–92, vol 7. US Geological Survey Circular, DenverGoogle Scholar
  46. Mertes LAK (1997) Documentation and significance of the perirheic zone on inundated floodplains. Water Resour Res 33(7):1749–1762. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2427.2002.00909.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mertes LAK (2002) Remote sensing of riverine landscapes. Freshw Biol 47(4):799–816. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2427.2002.00909.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Milly PCD, Betancourt J, Falkenmark M, Hirsch RM, Kundzewicz ZW, Lettenmaier DP, Stouffer RJ (2008) Stationarity is dead: whither water management? Science 319(5863):573–574. doi:10.1126/science.1151915 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Moody JA, Meade RH, Jones DR (2003) Lewis and Clark’s observations and measurements of geomorphology and hydrology, and changes with time, US Geological Survey Circular 1246. US Geological Survey, RestonGoogle Scholar
  50. National Research Council (2002) The Missouri River ecosystem, exploring the prospects for recovery. National Academy Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  51. Natural Resources Conservation Service (2008) Wetlands reserve enhancement program–Nebraska fact sheet. United State Department of Agriculture, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  52. Nienhuis PH, Leuven RSEW (2001) River restoration and flood protection: controversy or synergism? Hydrobiologia 444(1):85–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Pegg MA, Pierce CL, Roy A (2003) Hydrological alteration along the Missouri River basin: a time series approach. Aquat Sci 65:63–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Pinter N, Heine RA (2005) Hydrodynamic and morphodynamic response to river engineering documented by fixed-discharge analysis, Lower Missouri River, U.S.A. J Hydrol 302:70–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Poff NL, Zimmerman JKH (2010) Ecological responses to altered flow regimes: a literature review to inform environmental flows science and management. Freshw Biol 55:194–205. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2427.2009.02272.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Poff NL, Allan JD, Bain MB, Karr JR, Prestegaard KL, Richter BD, Sparks RE, Stromberg JC (1997) The natural flow regime. Bioscience 47:769–784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Poff NL, Richter BD, Arthington AH, Bunn SE, Naiman RJ, Kendy E, Acreman M, Apse C, Bledsoe B, Freeman MC, Henriksen JA, Jacobson RB, Kennen JG, Merritt DM, O’Keefe JH, Olden JD, Rogers K, Tharme RE, Warner A (2009) The ecological limits of hydrologic alteration (ELOHA): a new framework for developing regional environmental flow standards. Freshw Biol 55:147–170. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2427.2009.02204.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Pound R, Clements FE (1900) The Phytogeography of Nebraska. Botanical Survey of Nebraska, LincolnGoogle Scholar
  59. Power ME, Parker G, Dietrich WE, Sun A (1995) How does floodplain width affect floodplain river ecology––a preliminary exploration using simulations. Geomorphology 13:301–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Richter BD, Thomas GA (2007) Restoring environmental flows by modifying dam operations. Ecol Soc 12(1):1–26 [Online] Available at: http://wwwecologyandsocietyorg/vol12/iss1/art12/ Google Scholar
  61. Richter BD, Baumgartner JV, Wiginton R, Braun DP (1997) How much water does a river need? Freshw Biol 37:231–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Richter BD, Mathews R, Harrison DL, Wigington R (2003) Ecologically sustainable water management–Managing river flows for ecological integrity. Ecol Appl 13(1):206–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Rowland JC, Dietrich WE, Day G, Parker G (2009) Formation and maintenance of single-thread tie channels entering floodplain lakes: observations from three diverse river systems. J Geophys Res 114: F04023Google Scholar
  64. Schmidt JC, Wilcock PR (2008) Metrics for assessing the downstream effects of dams. Water Resour Res 44:1–19. doi:10.1029/2006WR005092 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Schmudde TH (1963) Some aspects of the Lower Missouri River flood plain. Ann Assoc Am Geogr 53:60–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database (2003–2006) US Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. Available at: URL http://SoilDataMart.nrcs.usda.gov/. Accessed 15 Sep 2006
  67. Soil Survey Staff (1993) Soil survey manual, Agricultural Handbook No. 18. United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, Washington, D.C. Available at http://soils.usda.gov/technical/manual/
  68. Sparks RE, Nelson JC, Yin Y (1998) Naturalization of the flood regime in regulated rivers. Bioscience 48(9):706–720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Thogmartin WE, Gallagher M, Young N, Rohweder JJ, Knutson MG (2009) Factors associated with succession of abandoned agricultural lands along the Lower Missouri River, USA. Restor Ecol 17:290–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Thomas WO Jr., Kirby WH (2007) Estimation of extreme floods. In: Ries KG, III (ed) The national streamflow statistics program: a computer program for estimating streamflow statistics for ungaged sites, vol Techniques and Methods 4-A6. US Geological Survey, Techniques and Methods 4-A6. US Geological Survey, Reston, pp 14–16Google Scholar
  71. Tockner K, Malard F, Ward JV (2000) An extension of the flood pulse concept. Hydrol Process 14(16–17):2861–2883CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. US Army Corps of Engineers (2003) Final supplemental environmental impact statement (FSEIS) for the moified Missouri River Fish and Wildlife Mitigation Project. US Army Corps of Engineers, Kansas CityGoogle Scholar
  73. US Army Corps of Engineers (2004a) Summary Missouri River final environmental impact statement–Master water control manual review and update. US Army Corps of Engineers, Northwest Division, PortlandGoogle Scholar
  74. US Army Corps of Engineers (2004b) Upper Mississippi River system flow frequency study. US Army Corps of Engineers, Rock IslandGoogle Scholar
  75. US Army Corps of Engineers (2007) Missouri River stage trends. Reservoir Control Center Technical Report Ja-07. US Army Corps of Engineers Northwestern Division, OmahaGoogle Scholar
  76. US Department of Agriculture NRCS (2009) National soil survey handbook, title 430-VI. US Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Available online at http://soils.usda.gov/technical/handbook/ Accessed 15 Oct 2009
  77. US Fish Wildlife Service (1999) Final environmental impact summary. US Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, PuxicoGoogle Scholar
  78. US Fish Wildlife Service (2000) Biological opinion on the operation of the Missouri River main stem reservoir system, operation and maintenance of the Missouri River bank stabilization and navigation project, and operation of the Kansas River reservoir system. US Fish and Wildlife Service, BismarckGoogle Scholar
  79. US Fish Wildlife Service (2003) Amendment to the 2000 biological opinion on the operation of the Missouri River main stem reservoir system, operation and maintenance of the Missouri River bank stabilization and navigation project, and operation of the Kansas River reservoir system. US Fish and Wildlife Service, MinneapolisGoogle Scholar
  80. Weaver JE (1960) Floodplain vegetation of the Central Missouri Valley and contacts of woodland with the prairie. Ecol Monogr 30:37–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Williams GP, Wolman MG (1984) Downstream effects of dams on alluvial rivers, US Geological Survey Professional Paper 1286. US Government Printing Office, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  82. Wolman MG, Leopold LB (1957) River flood plains: some observations on their formation, US Geological Survey Professional Paper 282-C. US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. (outside the USA) 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert B. Jacobson
    • 1
  • Tyler P. Janke
    • 2
  • Jason J. Skold
    • 2
  1. 1.Columbia Environmental Research CenterUS Geological SurveyColumbiaUSA
  2. 2.Missouri River ProgramThe Nature ConservancyOmahaUSA

Personalised recommendations