Wetlands Ecology and Management

, Volume 18, Issue 4, pp 397–433 | Cite as

Mires of the former Soviet Union

Original Paper

Abstract

This chapter reviews the literature on the ecology and geography of mires and their vegetation in the former Soviet Union. In the “Introduction” mires are defined and the types of mire systems included in the review are described. In the first section mire classification systems are discussed with an emphasis on physiognomic, phytogeographical and multilevel systems of classification. The second section is an ecological description of mire vegetation for the eight main types of mires that were recognized in the former Soviet Union: polygonal mires, palsa mires, aapa mires, raised bogs, pine bogs, larch bogs, alder swamps and sedge fens. In the third section of the review ecological characteristics of mires (primary production, decomposition, regulation processes) are considered with special attention given to raised bogs. The final section is a discussion of the various uses of mires by man and nature conservation measures that existed in the former Soviet Union. The objective of providing this historical review is to establish a framework for consideration of changes that have occurred in the classification, management, and conservation of mires in recent years in countries that were part of the former Soviet Union. The review also provides a list of references that were not readily available during the time of the former Soviet Union.

Keywords

Former Soviet Union Mire classifications Mire conservation Mire ecology Mire geography Mire vegetation 

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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Botany and EcologyUniversity of TartuTartuEstonia
  2. 2.Komarov Botanical Institute of the Russian Academy of SciencesSt PetersburgRussia
  3. 3.Institute of Ecology and Earth SciencesUniversity of TartuTartuEstonia

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