Advertisement

Wetlands Ecology and Management

, Volume 15, Issue 2, pp 81–93 | Cite as

The effects of the flood cycle on the diversity and composition of the phytoplankton community of a seasonally flooded Ramsar wetland in Bangladesh

  • Sabir B. Muzaffar
  • Fakhruddin A. Ahmed
Original Paper

Abstract

Freshwater wetlands in Bangladesh are strongly influenced by the monsoons and the annual flood cycle has measurable impacts on the abiotic and biotic components of these ecosystems. The northeastern Haor Basin of Bangladesh is particularly rich in seasonally flooded freshwater wetlands that support a wide diversity of flora and fauna. These wetlands are of great importance to the local economy due to the abundance of rich floodplain fisheries. Little is known about the phytoplankton communities of these wetlands that are known to be linked with zooplankton and fish productivity. We investigated the seasonal variation in the diversity and abundance of phytoplankton assemblages in Tanguar Haor, a Ramsar wetland in northeastern Bangladesh during the period of inundation (June–December). A total of 107 genera of phytoplankton representing five classes were recorded. Blooms of Microcystis dominated the phytoplankton community throughout the study period but were particularly acute during the early part of the high water period. Among the Bacillariophyceae, Melosira was the most dominant, reaching bloom proportions early in the high water period. Factor analysis of physicochemical variables separated the flood cycle into four distinct periods: early high water, mid high water, late high water and low water periods. Phase of the flood cycle, nutrient availability, the physicochemical variables combined with the dominance of Microcystis seemed to be important in controlling the abundance, diversity and dynamics of the phytoplankton genera. The abundance of genera of desmids and some Bacillariophyceae is indicative of the relatively unpolluted conditions of Tanguar Haor.

Keywords

Freshwater wetland Phytoplankton Haor Basin Ramsar Site Tanguar Haor Bangladesh 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank the Society of Wetland Scientists (SWS) for funding the project (SWS Ramsar Support Grant Program 2001; Grant Agreement Number SWS-2001-4 to SBM). We are also grateful to the following field assistants for their invaluable work in the field: Ahmad Fuad, Rabiul Hassan, Khaled Mahfuz, Rashid Mahmud, Imteaz Ibne Mostafa, Habibur Rahman, Harun Er Rashid and Md. Hamidur Rahman. We also thank Enamul Haque, Bangladesh Bird Club, for his valuable advice and support in various aspects of the project. I am also indebted to the School of Environmental Science and Management (SESM), Independent University, Bangladesh (IUB) for permitting and facilitating this study, with special thanks to Prof. Haroun Er Rashid (Director, SESM) and Dihider Shahriar Kabir (SESM) for constant encouragement and advice throughout the study.

References

  1. Alam AKMR, Hossain ABME, Aziz A, Hoque S (2002) Phytoplankton diversity in relation to water chemistry and the role of hydrophytes as resource base in some freshwater wetlands of greater Dhaka district. (Abstract) In: Wetlands: People, Land, Water and Fish. Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock, Bangladesh Wetlands Network, pp 36Google Scholar
  2. American Public Health Association (APHA) (1992). Standard methods for the examination of water and sewage, 18th edn. Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  3. An K, Jones JR (2000) Factors regulating bluegreen dominance in a reservoir directly influenced by the Asian monsoon. Hydrobiologia 432:37–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Agostinho AA, Thomaz SM, Minte-Vera CV, Winemiller KO (2001) Biodiversity of the Parana River floodplain. In: Gopal B, Junk WJ, Davis JA (eds) Biodiversity in wetlands: assessment, function and conservation, vol 1. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, pp 89–118Google Scholar
  5. Aziz A, Tanbir M (1999) Newly recorded algal taxa from some northern districts of Bangladesh. I. Blue-greens. Bangladesh J Bot 28:61–68Google Scholar
  6. Bormans N, Condie SA (1998) Modelling the distribution of Anabaena and Melosira in a stratified river weir pool. Hydrobiologia 364:3–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carvalho P, Thomaz SM, Bini LM (2003) Effects of water level, abiotic and biotic factors on bacterioplankton abundance in lagoons of a tropical floodplain (Parana River, Brazil). Hydrobiologia 510:67–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. de Graaf GJ, Marttin F (2003) Mechanisms behind changes in fish biodiversity in the floodplains of Bangladesh. Wetlands Ecol Manage 11:273–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. de Graaf GJ, Born B, Kamal Uddin AM, Marttin F (2001) Floods, fish and fishermen: eight years’ experience with floodplain fisheries in Bangladesh. University Press Limited, DhakaGoogle Scholar
  10. Dokulil MT, Teubner K (2000) Cyanobacterial dominance in lakes. Hydrobiologia 438:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dudgeon D (2001) Riverine wetlands and biodiversity conservation in tropical Asia. In: Gopal B, Junk WJ, Davis JA (eds) Biodiversity in wetlands: assessment, function and conservation, vol 2. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, pp 35–60Google Scholar
  12. EGIS/WARPO (1997) Floodplain Fish Habitat Study. Environmental and GIS Support Project for Water Sector Planning (EGIS), Water Resources Planning Organization (WARPO), Ministry of Water Resources, Government of Bangladesh, Government of NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  13. Gain P (2002) Bangladesh environment: facing the 21st century. Society of Environment and Human Development (SEHD), DhakaGoogle Scholar
  14. Geisen W, Khan N, Shahid A, Rahman A (2000) Management Plan for Tanguar Haor, Bangladesh: achieving community-based sustainable use of wetland resources. National Conservation Strategy Implementation Project-1, Ministry of Environment and Forest, Government of Bangladesh and IUCN-World Conservation UnionGoogle Scholar
  15. Gopal B, Chauhan M (2001) South Asian wetlands and their biodiversity: the role of monsoons. In: Gopal B, Junk WJ, Davis JA (eds) Biodiversity in wetlands: assessment, function and conservation, vol 2. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, pp 257–276Google Scholar
  16. Gopal B, Zutshi DP (1998) Fifty years of hydrobiological research in India. Hydrobiologia 384:267–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gopal B, Krishnamurthy K (1993) Wetlands of South Asia. In: Whigham DF, Dykyjova D, Hejny S (eds) Wetlands of the World. I. Inventory, ecology and management. Kluwer Academic Publisher, Dordrecht, pp 345–414Google Scholar
  18. Islam AKMN (1969) A preliminary report on the phytoplanktons and other algal flora of Chittagong Hill tracts. J Asiatic Soc Pakistan 14:343–363Google Scholar
  19. Islam AKMN (1973) Fresh water algae of Bangladesh, III. Cyanophyceae. Dacca Univ Stud Part B 2:133–139Google Scholar
  20. Islam AKMN (1991) Phycology. In: Islam AKMN (ed) Two centuries of plant studies in Bangladesh and adjacent regions. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Dhaka, pp 97–154Google Scholar
  21. Islam AKMN, Begum ZT (1981) Addition to the lists of blue-green algae of Bangladesh. Bangladesh J Bot 10:1–15Google Scholar
  22. Islam AKMN, Paul N (1978) Hydrobiological study of the haor Hakaluki in Sylhet. J Asiatic Soc Bangladesh (Sciences) 3:83–91Google Scholar
  23. Gain P (2002) Bangladesh environment: facing the 21st century. Society of Environment and Human Development (SEHD), DhakaGoogle Scholar
  24. Khan MA (1997) The sustainable management of the avifauna of Tanguar Haor. Final Report. Ministry of Environment and Forest, Government of Bangladesh, National Conservation Strategy Implementation Project-1Google Scholar
  25. Khondokar M (1997) Practical limnology and systematics of freshwater hydrophytes. Dhaka University, Dhaka (In Bengali)Google Scholar
  26. McGarigal K, Cushman S, Stafford S (2000) Multivariate statistics for wildlife and ecology research. Springer-Verlag New York Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. Miyajima T, Nakanishi M, Nakano S, Tezuka Y (1994) An autumnal bloom of the diatom Melosira granulata in a shallow eutrophic lake: physical and chemical constraints on its population dynamics. Arch Hydrobiol 130:143–162Google Scholar
  28. NCSIP-1 (2001a) Survey of flora, National Conservation Strategy Implementation Project-1, Ministry of Environment and Forest, Government of the People’s Republic of BangladeshGoogle Scholar
  29. NCSIP-1 (2001b) Survey of fauna, National Conservation Strategy Implementation Project-1, Ministry of Environment and Forest, Government of the People’s Republic of BangladeshGoogle Scholar
  30. Needham GJ, Needham RP (1962) A guide to the study of fresh-water biology, 5th edn. Holden-Day Inc., San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  31. Neiff JJ (2001) Diversity in some tropical wetland systems in South America. In: Gopal B, Junk WJ, Davis JA (eds) Biodiversity in wetlands: assessment, function and conservation, vol 2. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, pp 157–186Google Scholar
  32. NERP (1993a) Wetland Resources Specialist Studies. Northeast Regional Water Management Project/Flood Action Plan-6. Canadian International Development Agency, DhakaGoogle Scholar
  33. NERP (1993b) Surface Water Resources of the Northeastern Region. Northeast Regional Water Management Project/Flood Action Plan-6. Canadian International Development Agency, DhakaGoogle Scholar
  34. Nishat A, Hossain Z, Roy MK, Karim A (1993) Freshwater Wetlands in Bangladesh: Issues and Approaches for Management. IUCN-The World Conservation Union, Gland SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  35. Paul SK, Mazid MA (1997) Limnology of some floodplains in Bangladesh. In: Tsai C, Ali MY (eds) Openwater fisheries of Bangladesh, University Press Ltd., Dhaka, pp 125–136Google Scholar
  36. Payne I (1997) Tropical floodplain fisheries. In: Tsai C, Ali Y (eds) Openwater fisheries of Bangladesh. The University Press Limited, Dhaka, pp 1–26Google Scholar
  37. Prescott GW (1964) How to know-the fresh-water algae. Pictured-key Nature Series. W.M.C. Brown comp Publishers, IowaGoogle Scholar
  38. Rashid HE (1977) Geography of Bangladesh. University Press Limited, DhakaGoogle Scholar
  39. Reynolds CS (1987) Cyanobacterial water-blooms. In: Callow P (ed) Advances in botanical research 13. Academic Press, London, pp 67–143Google Scholar
  40. Shapiro J (1972) Blue-green algae: why they become dominant. Science 179:382–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Smith VH (1983) Low nitrogen to phosphorus favor dominance by blue green algae in lake phytoplankton. Science 221:669–671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sokal RR, Rolph FJ (1981) Biometry, 2nd edn. W.H. Freeman and Co., San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  43. Thompson PM, Sultana P, Islam N (2003) Lessons from community based management of floodplain fisheries in Bangladesh. J Environ Manage 69:307–321PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Tsai C, Ali Y (1997) Openwater fisheries of Bangladesh. The University Press Limited, DhakaGoogle Scholar
  45. Xie L, Xie P, Li S, Tang H, Liu H (2003) The low TN:TP ratio, a cause or a result of Microcystis blooms? Water Res 37:2073–2080PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zafar AR (1986) Seasonality of phytoplankton in some South Indian lakes. Hydrobiologia 138:177–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Zalocar de Domitrovic Y (2003) Effect of fluctuations in water level on phytoplankton development in three lakes of the Parana river floodplain (Argentina). Hydrobiologia 510:175–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Zohary T, Pais-Madeira AM, Robarts R, Hambright KD (1996) Interannual phytoplankton dynamics of a hypertrophic African lake. Arch Hydrobiol 136:105–126Google Scholar
  49. Zohary T, Fishbein T, Kaplan B, Pollingher U (1998) Phytoplankton-metaphyton seasonal dynamics in a newly-created subtropical wetland lake. Wetlands Ecol Manage 6:133–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Environmental Science and ManagementIndependent University, Bangladesh (IUB)BaridharaBangladesh
  2. 2.Department of BiologyMemorial University of NewfoundlandSt. John’sCanada
  3. 3.Department of BotanyJahangirnagar UniversitySavarBangladesh

Personalised recommendations