Mangrove swamps are key ecosystems along the Vietnam coast. Although mangrove litter is thought to represent an important input of organic matter and nutrients to the coastal aquatic systems, the factors determining the quality and size of this litter flux have not been studied so far. We monitored leaf, stipule, twig, and reproductive litter monthly in monocultures of Rhizophora apiculata mangrove forests of 7, 11, 17 and 24 years old in the Camau province, Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Litter traps were used to measure litter fall production from June 2001 till May 2002. Total litter fall was in the range of 8.86–14.16 t DW ha−1 year−1. Leaves were the main component, and represented 70% of litter fall production in all stands. Total litter fall was lower in the older stands but the amount of reproductive litter was significantly higher in these stands (17 and 24 years). Biomass of leaf litter was highest between the end of the wet season and the beginning of the dry season. Phosphorus and nitrogen levels in leaf litter were significantly higher in younger than in older stands. Overall, our study indicated that young stands produced the highest input of litter and particularly of nitrogen and phosphorus to the surrounding aquatic system. Consequently, these stands contribute significantly to the fisheries.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
S. Aksornkoae (1993) Ecology and Management of Mangroves IUCN Bangkok, Thailand 175
D.M. Alongi (1990) ArticleTitleAbundances of benthic microfauna in relation to outwelling of mangrove detritus in a tropical coastal region Marine Ecology Progress Series 63 53–63
D.M. Alongi K.G. Boto F. Tirendi (1989) ArticleTitleEffect of exported mangrove litter on bacterial productivity and dissolved organic carbon fluxes in adjacent tropical nearshore sediments Marine Ecology Progress Series 56 133–144
E.B. Barbier (2000) ArticleTitleValuing the environment as input: review of applications to mangrove-fishery linkages Ecol. Econ. 35 47–61 Occurrence Handle10.1016/S0921-8009(00)00167-1
J.L. Betoulle F. Fromard A. Fabre H. Puig (2001) ArticleTitleCharacterization of litter and its contributions to soil nutriment in a mangrove of French Guiana [French] Can. J. Bot. 79 IssueID2 238–249 Occurrence Handle10.1139/cjb-79-2-238
J.S. Bunt (1982) Studies of Mangrove Litter Fall in Tropical Australia. Mangrove Ecosystem in Australia: StructureFunction and Management Australian National University Press Canberra 193–210
J.S. Bunt (1995) ArticleTitleContinental scale patterns in mangrove litter fall Hydrobiologia 295 135–140 Occurrence Handle10.1007/BF00029120
B. Christensen (1978) ArticleTitleBiomass and primary production of Rhizophora apiculata in a mangrove in southern Thailand Aquat. Bot. 4 43–52 Occurrence Handle10.1016/0304-3770(78)90005-0
B. Clough D.T. Tan D.X Phuong D.C. Buu (2000) ArticleTitleCanopy leaf area index and litter fall in stands of the Mangrove Rhizophora apiculata of different age in the Mekong DeltaVietnam Aquat. Bot. 66 311–320 Occurrence Handle10.1016/S0304-3770(99)00081-9
E.F. Cox J.A. Allen (1999) ArticleTitleStand structure and productivity of the introduced Rhizophora mangle in Hawaii Estuaries 22 276–284
P.A. Daniel A.I. Robertson (1990) ArticleTitleEpibenthos of mangrove waterways and open embayments: community structure and the relationship between exported mangrove detritus and epifaunal standing stocks Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Sci. 31 599–619
C. Dawes K. Siar D. Marlett (1999) ArticleTitleMangrove structurelitter and macroalgal productivity in a northern-most forest of Florida Mangroves and Salt Marshes 3 259–267 Occurrence Handle10.1023/A:1009976025000
J.W. Day SuffixJr. W.H. Conner F. Ley-Lou R.H. day A.M. Navarro (1987) ArticleTitleThe productivity and composition of mangrove forests, Languna de Terminos, Mexico Aquat. Bot. 27 267–284 Occurrence Handle10.1016/0304-3770(87)90046-5
Department of AgricultureForestry, and Fishery 1996. Statistical Data of AgricultureForestry, and Fishery 1990–1995, pp. 199.
N.C. Duke J.S. Bunt W.T. Williams (1981) ArticleTitleMangrove litterfall in northeastern Australia. I. Annual totals by component in selected species Austr. J. Bot. 29 547–553
Gong W.K., Ong J.E., Wong C.H and Dhanarajan G. 1984. Productivity of mangrove trees and its significance in managed mangrove ecosystems in Malaysia. Proceedings of the Asian Symposium on Mangrove Environment: research and management. University of Malaysia and UNESCO, pp. 216–225.
G.J. Graaf T.T. Xuan (1998) ArticleTitleExtensive shrimp farming mangrove clearance and marine fisheries in the southern provinces of Vietnam Mangroves and Salt Marshes 2 159–166 Occurrence Handle10.1023/A:1009975210487
P.N. Hong (1996) ArticleTitleMangrove destruction for shrimp rearing in Minh HaiVietnam: Its damage to natural resources and the environment SEAFDEC Asian Aquacult. 18 IssueID3 6–11
Hong P.N. 1997. Function of Mangroves forest in Vietnam. Agriculture Publishing house, pp. 217.
Hong P.N. and San T.H. 1993. Mangroves of Vietnam. IUCN, pp.173.
D. Johnston N.V Trong D.V Tien T.T. Xuan (2000) ArticleTitleShrimp yields and harvest characteristics of mixed shrimp-mangrove forestry farms in southern Vietnam: factors affecting production Aquaculture 188 263–284 Occurrence Handle10.1016/S0044-8486(00)00348-3
G.J. Leach S. Burgin (1985) ArticleTitleLitter production and seasonality of mangroves in Papua New Guinea Aquat. Bot. 23 215–224 Occurrence Handle10.1016/0304-3770(85)90067-1
S.Y. Lee (1989) ArticleTitleLitter production and turnover of the mangrove Kandelia Candel (L.) Druce in a Hongkong tidal shrimp pond Estuarine Coastal Shelf Sci. 29 75–87 Occurrence Handle10.1016/0272-7714(89)90074-7
Loi L.T., Tri L.Q. and Tee J. 2002. Biomass of Rhizophora apiculata and soil characteristics in the coastal area of Camau province, Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Selected papers of the workshop on Integrated Management of Coastal Resources in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, pp. 65–70.
A.P. Mackey G. Smail (1996) ArticleTitleThe decomposition of mangrove litter in a subtropical mangrove forest Hydrobiologia 332 93–98 Occurrence Handle10.1007/BF00016688
L.P. Mall V.P. Singh A. Garge (1991) ArticleTitleStudy of biomass, litter fall, litter decomposition and soil respiration in monogeneric mangrove and mixed mangrove forest of Andaman Island Trop. Ecol. 32 144–152
D.F. Malley (1978) ArticleTitleDegradation of mangrove leaf litter by the tropical sesarmid crab Chiromanthes onychophorum Mar. Biol. 49 377–386 Occurrence Handle10.1007/BF00455032
K.L. McKee P.L. Faulkner (2000) ArticleTitleRestoration of biogeochemical function in mangrove forests Restoration Ecol. 8 247–259 Occurrence Handle10.1046/j.1526-100x.2000.80036.x
Ministry of Fisheries 2001. Report on the Fisheries Development in the Mekong Delta and its Development Plan for the Period from 2001–2005, pp. 49.
D.J Morrisey G.A. Skilleter J.I. Ellis B.R. Burns C.E. Kemp K. Burt (2003) ArticleTitleDifferences in benthic fauna and sediment among mangrove (avicennia marina var. australasica) stands of different ages in New Zealand EstuarineCoastal and Shelf Sci. 56 IssueID3–4 581–592 Occurrence Handle10.1016/S0272-7714(02)00208-1
V.N. Nam N.S. Thuy (1997) The Biomass of a Rhizophora apiculata Plantation in Can Gio districtHo Chi Minh city Proceeding of National workshop on the relationship between mangrove reforestation and coastal aquaculture in Vietnam CRES-ACTMANG Hanoi
T. Nielsen F. Andersen (2003) ArticleTitlePhosphorus dynamics during decomposition of mangrove (Rhizophora apiculata) leaves in sediments J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 293 73–88 Occurrence Handle10.1016/S0022-0981(03)00200-4
W.E. Odum E.J. Heald (1972) ArticleTitleTrophic analysis of an estuarine mangrove community Bull. Mar. Sci. 22 671–738
W.E. Odum E.J. Heald (1975) The detritus-based food web of an estuarine mangrove community L.E. Cronin (Eds) Estuarine Research Academic Press New York 265–286
D.J. Pool A.E. Lugo S.C. Snedaker (1975) Litter production in mangrove forests of Southern Florida and Puerto Rico G.W. Barrett R. Rosenberg (Eds) Stress Effects on Natural Ecosystems Wiley New York 213–237
Robertson A.I., Alongi D.M. and Boto K.G. 1992. Food chains and carbon fluxes. In Roberson A.I. and Alongi D.M. Tropical Mangrove Ecosystems. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, pp. 293–326.
A.I. Robertson P.A. Daniel (1989) ArticleTitleThe influence of crabs on litter processing in high intertidal mangrove forest in tropical Australia Oecologia 78 191–198 Occurrence Handle10.1007/BF00377155
A. Sasekumar J.J. Loi (1983) ArticleTitleLitter production in three mangrove forests zones in the Malay Peninsular Aquat. Bot. 17 283–290 Occurrence Handle10.1016/0304-3770(83)90063-3
J.P. Shunula A. Whittick (1999) ArticleTitleAspects of litter production in mangroves from Unguja IslandZanzibarTanzania Estuarine Coastal Shelf Sci. 49 51–54
C.A.R. Silva L.D. Lacerda A.R. Ovalle C.E. Rezende (1998) ArticleTitleThe dynamics of heavy metals through litter fall and decomposition in a read mangrove forest Mangroves and Salt Marshes 2 149–157 Occurrence Handle10.1023/A:1009923223882
F.J. Slim P.M. Gwada M. Kodjo M.A. Hemminga (1996) ArticleTitleBiomass and litterfall of Ceriops tagalRhizophora mucronata in the mangrove forest of Gazi bay, Kenya Mar. Freshwater Res. 73 25–38
R.R. Twiley A.E. Lugo C. Patterson-Zucca (1986) ArticleTitleLitter production and turnover in basin Mangrove forests in south west Florida Ecology 67 670–683
R.R. Twiley M. Poro V.H. Garcia V.H. Rivera-Monroy R. Zambrano A. Bodero (1997) ArticleTitleLitter dynamics in riverine mangrove forests in the Guayas River estuary, Ecuador Oecologia 111 109–122 Occurrence Handle10.1007/s004420050214
S. Wafar A.G. Untawale M. Wafer (1997) ArticleTitleLitter fall and energy flux in a mangrove ecosystem Estuarine Coastal Shelf Sci. 44 111–124 Occurrence Handle10.1006/ecss.1996.0152
Woitchik A.F., Ohawa B., Kazungu J.M., Rao R.G., Goeyens L. and Dehairs F. 1997. Nitrogen enrichment during decomposition of mangrove litter in an east African coastal lagoon (Kenya): relative importance of biological nitrogen fixation. Biogeochemistry 39: 15–35.
C.D. Woodroffe T.J. Moss (1984) ArticleTitleLitter fall beneath Rhizophora stylosa Griff., VaitupuTuvaluSouth Pacific Aquat. Bot. 18 249–255 Occurrence Handle10.1016/0304-3770(84)90066-4
About this article
Cite this article
Nga, B., Tinh, H., Tam, D. et al. Young Mangrove Stands Produce a Large and High Quality Litter Input to Aquatic Systems. Wetlands Ecol Manage 13, 569–576 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11273-004-6073-4