Wetlands Ecology and Management

, Volume 12, Issue 5, pp 365–375

Association between phosphorus and suspended solids in an Everglades treatment wetland dominated by submersed aquatic vegetation

  • M. Farve
  • W. Harris
  • F. Dierberg
  • K. Portier
Article

Abstract

Restoration of the Everglades requires reduction of total phosphorus (TP) in the influent run-off from the Everglades agricultural area (EAA). The Everglades nutrient removal project tested phosphorus (P) - removal efficiencies of several treatment wetland cells. The best TP reduction has occurred within the submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV) - dominated treatment Cell 4. A significant proportion of the P reduction in Cell 4 over several years has been in the form of particulate P (PP). This study was conducted to (i) determine and compare the components of suspended solids in the Cell 4 influent and effluent waters, and (ii) investigate associations between PP and individual particulate components. Identification and quantification of components were accomplished using X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray elemental analysis. The dominant particulate components in the Cell 4 water column are organic matter (OM), biogenic Si (predominantly diatom frustules), and calcite. Concentrations of PP, suspended solids, and particulate OM were greater at the Cell 4 inflow than at the outflow; consistent differences between particulate calcite in the influent vs. the effluent were not found. PP was positively correlated with particulate OM, but was not correlated with calcite. Data suggest that particulate OM, including microbial cells, plays an important role in P transport from the EAA. Possibly, a shift from planktonic to periphytic microbial distribution contributes to PP reduction. The importance of planktonic organisms as vectors of P in Everglades water warrants further study.

Key words

Constructed wetlands Particulate phosphorus Periphyton Phosphorus removal Plankton Submersed macrophytes 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Brix H. 1993. Wastewater treatment in constructed wetlands: system design, removal processes, and treatment performance. In: Moshiri G.A. (ed.), Constructed Wetlands for Water Quality Improvement, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp. 9–22.Google Scholar
  2. DB Environmental Laboratories, Inc., 1999. A Demonstration of Submerged Aquatic Vegetation/Limerock Treatment System Technology for Removing Phosphorus from Everglades Agricultural Area Waters. Technical report, DB Environmental Laboratories, Inc. for the South Florida Water Management District, West Palm Beach, FL, USA.Google Scholar
  3. Dierberg F.E., DeBusk T.A., Jackson S.D., Chimney M.J. and Pietro K. 2002. Submerged aquatic vegetation-based treatment wetlands for removing phosphorus from agricultural run-off: response to hydraulic and nutrient loading. Water Research 36: 1409–1422.Google Scholar
  4. Earnest C.M. 1988. Compositional Analysis by Thermogravimetry. American Society for Testing Materials, Philadelphia, PA, USA.Google Scholar
  5. Gray S. and Coffelt G.L. 1999. Supplementary Technologies for Treating Storm Water Discharges into the Everglades Protection Area. Technical report. South Florida Water Management District, West Palm Beach, Florida, USA.Google Scholar
  6. Guardo M. and Thomasello R.S. 1995. Hydrodynamic simulations of a constructed - wetland in South FL. Water Resources Bulletin 31(4): 687–701.Google Scholar
  7. Guardo M., Fink L., Fontaine T.D., Newman S., Chimney M., Bearzotti R. and Goforth G. 1995. Large-scale constructed wetlands for nutrient removal from stormwater runoff: an Everglades restoration project. Environmental Management 19(6): 879–889.Google Scholar
  8. Kadlec R.H., Best G.R., Browder T.A., DeBusk T.A., Grace J.R., Johnson R., Maffei M.D., Mitsch W.J., Reddy K.R., Richardson C.J., Snyder G.H. and Ward A.K. 1991. The Everglades Nutrient Removal Project Technical Advisory Panel Report. Prepared for the South Florida Water Management District, West Palm Beach, FL, USA.Google Scholar
  9. Karathanasis A.A. and Harris W.G. 1994. Quantitative thermal analysis of soil minerals. In: Ammonette J. and Zelazny L.W. (eds), Quantitative Methods in Soil Mineralogy, Soil Science Society of America Miscellaneous Publication. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI, USA, pp. 360–411.Google Scholar
  10. Koch M.S. and Reddy K.R. 1992. Distribution of soil and plant nutrients along a trophic gradient in the Florida Everglades. Soil Science Society of America Journal 56: 1492–1499.Google Scholar
  11. Lorenzen B., Brix H., Mendelssohn I.A., McKee K.L. and Miao S.L. 2001. Growth, biomass allocation, and nutrient use efficiency in Cladium jamaicense and Typha domingensis as affected by phosphorus and oxygen availability. Aquatic Botany 70: 117–133.Google Scholar
  12. Moustafa M.Z. 1999. Nutrient retention dynamics of the Everglades Nutrient Removal Project. Wetlands 19(3): 689–704.Google Scholar
  13. Murphy T.P., Hall K.J. and Yesaki I. 1983. Coprecipitation of phosphate with calcite in a naturally eutrophic lake. Limnology and Oceanography 28(1): 58–69.Google Scholar
  14. Newman S., Reddy K.R., DeBusk W.F., Wang Y., Shih G. and Fisher M.M. 1997. Spatial distribution of soil nutrients in a northern Everglades marsh: Water Conservation Area 1. Soil Science Society of America Journal 61: 1275–1283.Google Scholar
  15. Otsuki A. and Wetzel R.G. 1972. Coprecipitation of phosphate with carbonates in a marl lake. Limnology and Oceanography 17(5): 763–767.Google Scholar
  16. Qualls R.G. and Richardson C.J. 1995. Forms of soil phosphorus along a nutrient enrichment gradient in the northern Everglades. Soil Science 160: 183–198.Google Scholar
  17. Reddy K.R., Wang Y., DeBusk W.F., Fisher M.M. and Newman S. 1998. Forms of soil phosphorus in selected hydrologic units in the Florida Everglades. Soil Science Society of America Journal 62: 1134–1147.Google Scholar
  18. Scinto L. 1997. Phosphorus Cycling in a Periphyton-Dominated Freshwater Wetland. PhD Dissertation, University of Florida, Soil and Water Science Department, Gainesville, FL, USA.Google Scholar
  19. Sheskin D.J. 1997. Handbook of Parametric and Nonparametric Statistical Procedures. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA.Google Scholar
  20. SFWMD (South Florida Water Management District). 1992. Surface Water Improvement and Management Plan for the Everglades, Supporting Information Document. SFWMD, West Palm Beach, FL, USA.Google Scholar
  21. SFWMD (South Florida Water Management District). 1996. Everglades Nutrient Removal Project 1995 Monitoring Report. SFWMD, West Palm Beach, FL, USA.Google Scholar
  22. Stuck J.D. 1996. Particulate Phosphorus Transport in the Water Conveyance Systems of the Everglades Agricultural Area. PhD Dissertation submitted to the University of Florida Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Gainesville, FL, USA.Google Scholar
  23. USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency). 1979. Methods for the Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastes. EPA-600/4-79-020, Washington, D.C., USA.Google Scholar
  24. Walker W.W. 1999. Everglades Nutrient Removal Project Cell 4 Water Quality Data Analysis and Modelling. Technical memorandum to SFWMD, West Palm Beach, FL, USA.Google Scholar
  25. Whittig L.D. and Allardice W.R. 1986. X-ray diffraction techniques. In: Klute A. (ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 1. American Society of Agronomy. Madison, WI, USA, pp. 331–362.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Farve
    • 1
  • W. Harris
    • 2
  • F. Dierberg
    • 4
  • K. Portier
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Natural Resources and EnvironmentUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  2. 2.Soil and Water Science DepartmentUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  3. 3.Statistics DepartmentUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  4. 4.DB Environmental, Inc.RockledgeUSA

Personalised recommendations