Water, Air, & Soil Pollution

, 230:281 | Cite as

Adsorption of Methylene Blue onto Novel Biochars Prepared from Magnolia grandiflora Linn Fallen Leaves at Three Pyrolysis Temperatures

  • Bin JiEmail author
  • Lin Zhu
  • Hongjiao Song
  • Wei Chen
  • Shaodong Guo
  • Fengting Chen


The adsorption properties and mechanisms of methylene blue (MB) onto novel biochars produced by the fallen leaves of Magnolia grandiflora Linn (MGL), at different pyrolysis temperatures (450 °C, 500 °C, 550 °C) were explored. Results of the adsorption experiments revealed that the fallen leaf-biochar of MGL (MGLB) pyrolyzed at 450 °C (MGLB450) had the highest adsorption capacity of MB (114.15 mg g−1) and MGLB pyrolyzed at 500 °C (MGLB500) was lowest (88.13 mg g−1). The characterization results showed that the BET surface area (41.784 m2 g−1) and total pore volume (0.043 cm3 g−1) of MGLB450 were low, but the contents of oxygen-containing functional groups were highest. Oxygen-containing functional group might have a greater impact on the adsorption of MB than its physical characteristics. The adsorption capacity increased with reaction temperature, indicating that the MG adsorption onto biochars was endothermic. The higher initial concentrations of MB and pH were beneficial to adsorption. The adsorption kinetics showed that the adsorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetics model. The obtained equilibrium data were fitted better by Langmuir model rather than Freundlich model.


Magnolia grandiflora Linn Fallen leaf-biochar Dye wastewater Adsorption Oxygen-containing functional group 


Funding Information

This research was financially supported by the Project of the Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Development and Comprehensive Utilization of Mineral Resources (No.2017B030314046), the Science and Technology Research Project of Hubei Provincial Department of Education (Q20171107), Qingdao Science and Technology Program (17-3-3-77-nsh) and the Project (2017zy011) of Hubei Key Laboratory for Efficient Utilization and Agglomeration of Metallurgic Mineral Resources.


  1. Ahmad, M., Rajapaksha, A. U., Lim, J. E., Ming, Z., Bolan, N., Mohan, D., Vithanage, M., Sang, S. L., & Yong, S. O. (2014). Biochar as a sorbent for contaminant management in soil and water: a review. Chemosphere, 99(3), 19–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmad, A., Mohd-Setapar, S. H., Chuong, C. S., Khatoon, A., Wani, W. A., Kumar, R., & Rafatullah, M. (2015). Recent advances in new generation dye removal technologies: novel search for approaches to reprocess wastewater. RSC Advances, 5(39), 30801–30818.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Al-Qodah, Z. (2000). Adsorption of dyes using shale oil ash. Water Research, 34(17), 4295–4303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Borah, L., Goswami, M., & Phukan, P. (2015). Adsorption of methylene blue and eosin yellow using porous carbon prepared from tea waste: adsorption equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics study. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 3(2), 1018–1028.Google Scholar
  5. Chen, Y. D., Lin, Y. C., Ho, S. H., Zhou, Y., & Ren, N. Q. (2018). Highly efficient adsorption of dyes by biochar derived from pigments-extracted macroalgae pyrolyzed at different temperature. Bioresource Technology, 259, 104–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen, W., Mo, J., Du, X., Zhang, Z., & Zhang, W. (2019a). Biomimetic dynamic membrane for aquatic dye removal. Water Research, 151, 243–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen, S., Qin, C., Wang, T., Chen, F., Li, X., Hou, H., & Zhou, M. (2019b). Study on the adsorption of dyestuffs with different properties by sludge-rice husk biochar: adsorption capacity, isotherm, kinetic, thermodynamics and mechanism. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 285, 62–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fan, S., Tang, J., Wang, Y., Li, H., Zhang, H., Tang, J., Wang, Z., & Li, X. (2016). Biochar prepared from co-pyrolysis of municipal sewage sludge and tea waste for the adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solutions: kinetics, isotherm, thermodynamic and mechanism. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 220, 432–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Freundlich, H. (1907). Über die Adsorption in Lösungen. Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie, 57(1), 385–470.Google Scholar
  10. Hai Nguyen Tran, Sheng-Jie You, Ahmad Hosseini-Bandegharaei, Huan-Ping Chao, (2017) Mistakes and inconsistencies regarding adsorption of contaminants from aqueous solutions: A critical review. Water Research 120:88-116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Han, Z., Sani, B., Mrozik, W., Obst, M., Beckingham, B., Karapanagioti, H. K., & Werner, D. (2015). Magnetite impregnation effects on the sorbent properties of activated carbons and biochars. Water Research, 70, 394–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hassan, M. M., & Carr, C. M. (2018). A critical review on recent advancements of the removal of reactive dyes from dyehouse effluent by ion-exchange adsorbents. Chemosphere, 209, 201–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hossain, M. K., Strezov, V., Chan, K. Y., Ziolkowski, A., & Nelson, P. F. (2011). Influence of pyrolysis temperature on production and nutrient properties of wastewater sludge biochar. Journal of Environmental Management, 92(1), 223–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ito, T., Adachi, Y., Yamanashi, Y., & Shimada, Y. (2016). Long-term natural remediation process in textile dye-polluted river sediment driven by bacterial community changes. Water Research, 100, 458–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Koswojo, R., Utomo, R. P., Ju, Y., Ayucitra, A., Soetaredjo, F. E., Sunarso, J., & Ismadji, S. (2010). Acid Green 25 removal from wastewater by organo-bentonite from Pacitan. Applied Clay Science, 48(1-2), 81–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Langmuir, I. (1918). The adsorption of gases on plane surfaces of glass, mica and platinum. The Journal of Chemical Physics, 40(9), 1361–1403.Google Scholar
  17. Lata, H., Garg, V. K., & Gupta, R. K. (2007). Removal of a basic dye from aqueous solution by adsorption using Parthenium hysterophorus: an agricultural waste. Dyes and Pigments, 74(3), 653–658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lei, S., Miyamoto, J., Kanoh, H., Nakahigashi, Y., & Kaneko, K. (2006). Enhancement of the methylene blue adsorption rate for ultramicroporous carbon fiber by addition of mesopores. Carbon, 44(10), 1884–1890.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Leng, L., Yuan, X., Huang, H., Shao, J., Wang, H., Chen, X., & Zeng, G. (2015). Bio-char derived from sewage sludge by liquefaction: characterization and application for dye adsorption. Applied Surface Science, 346, 223–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ma, J., Shi, J., Ding, H., Zhu, G., Fu, K., & Fu, X. (2017). Synthesis of cationic polyacrylamide by low-pressure UV initiation for turbidity water flocculation. Chemical Engineering Journal, 312, 20–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mo, J., Yang, Q., Zhang, N., Zhang, W., Zheng, Y., & Zhang, Z. (2018). A review on agro-industrial waste (AIW) derived adsorbents for water and wastewater treatment. Journal of Environmental Management, 227, 395–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Namasivayam, C., Jeyakumar, R., & Yamuna, R. T. (1994). Dye removal from wastewater by adsorption on ‘waste’ Fe(III)/Cr(III) hydroxide. Waste Management, 14(7), 643–648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Oladipo, A. A., & Gazi, M. (2014). Enhanced removal of crystal violet by low cost alginate/acid activated bentonite composite beads: optimization and modelling using non-linear regression technique. J. Water Process Eng., 2, 43–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Senthilkumaar, S., Kalaamani, P., & Subburaam, C. V. (2006). Liquid phase adsorption of crystal violet onto activated carbons derived from male flowers of coconut tree. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 136(3), 800–808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Shi, J., Zheng, J., Wu, P., & Ji, X. (2008). Immobilization of TiO2 films on activated carbon fiber and their photocatalytic degradation properties for dye compounds with different molecular size. Catalysis Communications, 9(9), 1846–1850.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Srivastava, V. C., Swamy, M. M., Mall, I. D., Prasad, B., & Mishra, I. M. (2006). Adsorptive removal of phenol by bagasse fly ash and activated carbon: equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics. Colloid Surface A., 272(1), 89–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Tang, L., Yu, J., Pang, Y., Zeng, G., Deng, Y., Wang, J., Ren, X., Ye, S., Peng, B., & Feng, H. (2018). Sustainable efficient adsorbent: alkali-acid modified magnetic biochar derived from sewage sludge for aqueous organic contaminant removal. CHEM. ENG. J., 336, 160–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Tran, H. N., You, S., Hosseini-Bandegharaei, A., & Chao, H. (2017). Mistakes and inconsistencies regarding adsorption of contaminants from aqueous solutions: A critical review. Water Research 120:88-116Google Scholar
  29. Vikrant, K., Giri, B. S., Raza, N., Roy, K., Kim, K. H., Rai, B. N., & Singh, R. S. (2018). Recent advancements in bioremediation of dye: current status and challenges. Bioresource Technol., 253, 355–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Yagub, M. T., Sen, T. K., Afroze, S., & Ang, H. M. (2014). Dye and its removal from aqueous solution by adsorption: ADV. Colloid Interfac., 209, 172–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Yenisoy-Karakaş, S., Aygün, A., Güneş, M., & Tahtasakal, E. (2004). Physical and chemical characteristics of polymer-based spherical activated carbon and its ability to adsorb organics. Carbon, 42(3), 477–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Zazycki, M. A., Godinho, M., Perondi, D., Foletto, E. L., Collazzo, G. C., & Dotto, G. L. (2017). New biochar from pecan nutshells as an alternative adsorbent for removing Reactive Red 141 from aqueous solutions. Journal of Cleaner Production, 171, 57–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Zhang, W., & Jiang, F. (2019). Membrane fouling in aerobic granular sludge (AGS)-membrane bioreactor (MBR): Effect of AGS size. Water Research, 157, 445–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Zhang, P., Zheng, S., Liu, J., Wang, B., Liu, F., & Feng, Y. (2018). Surface properties of activated sludge-derived biochar determine the facilitating effects on Geobacter co-cultures. Water Research, 142, 441–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Zhang, Z., Zhu, Z., Shen, B., & Liu, L. (2019). Insights into biochar and hydrochar production and applications: a review. Energy, 171, 581–598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Zhao, N., Zhao, C., Lv, Y., Zhang, W., Du, Y., Hao, Z., & Zhang, J. (2017). Adsorption and coadsorption mechanisms of Cr(VI) and organic contaminants on H3PO4 treated biochar. Chemosphere, 186, 422–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bin Ji
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Lin Zhu
    • 1
  • Hongjiao Song
    • 1
  • Wei Chen
    • 1
  • Shaodong Guo
    • 1
  • Fengting Chen
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Urban ConstructionWuhan University of Science and TechnologyWuhanChina
  2. 2.Hubei Key Laboratory for Efficient Utilization and Agglomeration of Metallurgic Mineral ResourcesWuhan University of Science and TechnologyWuhanChina

Personalised recommendations