Water, Air, & Soil Pollution

, 230:265 | Cite as

The Azo Dye Degradation and Differences Between the Two Anodes on the Microbial Community in a Double-Anode Microbial Fuel Cell

  • Xizi Long
  • Xian CaoEmail author
  • Shentan Liu
  • Osamu Nishimura
  • Xianning LiEmail author


The anode configuration determined the performance of power generation and contaminant removal in microbial fuel cell (MFC). In this study, double anodes were constructed along an up-flow MFC for mitigating the suppression of refractory organic azo dye Reactive Brilliant Red X-3B and increasing the power output. Results revealed that high concentration of X-3B suppressed the power generation of MFC. The maximum power density decreased from 0.413 to 0.161 W/m3, and the inner resistance rose from 448 to 698 Ω. However, double anodes weakened the suppression of X-3B to the current generation. Compared with single anode, the attenuation of MFC current decreased from 48 to 40%. Meanwhile, the X-3B removal efficiency in double-anode MFC was 19.81% higher compared with a single-anode condition when the X-3B was 1000 mg/L. The degradation pathway analysis indicated that aromatic amines formation and further oxidation were achieved sequentially in the MFC. Furthermore, microbial communities in the lower and upper anodes were analyzed, revealing that the microorganisms in the lower anode were more inclined to degrade the pollutant, whereas those in the upper anode were more inclined to generate electricity. This double-anode structure showed the potential for large concentration range of azo dye removal and the current recovery in real textile wastewater.


Microbial community Double anode Microbial fuel cell Bioelectrochemistry Degradation pathway 


Funding Information

This work was financially supported by the Provincial Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu, China (BK20171351), the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science [P19056] and JP16H02747, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21806128), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2242016 K41042), and the Scientific Research Foundation of Graduate School of Southeast University.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Energy and EnvironmentSoutheast UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of EngineeringTohoku UniversitySendaiJapan
  3. 3.College of Geology and EnvironmentXi’an University of Science and TechnologyXi‘anChina

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