Water, Air, & Soil Pollution

, 230:261 | Cite as

Tea Residue Boosts Dye Decolorization and Induces the Evolution of Bacterial Community

  • Xuehui XieEmail author
  • Xiulin Zheng
  • Chengzhi Yu
  • Qingyun Zhang
  • Yiqin Wang
  • Junhao Cong
  • Na Liu
  • Zhenjiang He
  • Bo YangEmail author
  • Jianshe Liu


Considerable researches on removal of azo dyes have been reported in recent years, but few researchers have documented adsorption and/or transformation of anthraquinone dyes by physical, chemical, or biological treatment methods due to their fused aromatic structures. In this study, tea residue was found to have significant enhancement effect on the decolorization of anthraquinone dye reactive blue 19. This effect worked on different dye decolorizing bacterial florae and the natural bacterial flora from surface water and exhibited universal feature. Six single bacterial strains were isolated from bacterial flora DDMY2. Unexpectedly, all of them had poor decolorization capacity. High-throughput sequencing results revealed the community evolution of bacterial flora DDMY2 cultured with tea residue after 6 months and 12 months. It was found that the community structure changed dramatically because the influence of tea residue and the dominant functional genera, such as unclassified_o_Pseudomonadales, Stenotrophomonas, Bordetella, and Brevibacillus, was significantly enriched. Meanwhile, the evolved community structure could keep stable for a long time, resulting in the decolorization effect stabilized for a long time. This study provides the tea residue as the bioactivator that can be applied to boost the decolorization of dyes by various potential bacterial florae. It also enlarges our knowledge of making full use of biowaste in biological wastewater treatment.


Bioactivator Tea residue Decolorization Reactive blue 19 Community structure evolution 


Funding information

The authors acknowledge the financial support by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2232018G-11, 2232019D3-22), the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2016YFC0400501), the Graduate Student Innovation Fund of Donghua University (CUSF-DH-D-2019078), Anhui Provincial Natural Science Foundation (1808085QE176), the scientific research program of Anhui Provincial Education Department (KJ2018A0444) and the Suzhou University Startup Foundation for Doctor (2016jb04), the “Chenguang Program” supported by Shanghai Education Development Foundation and Shanghai Municipal Education Commission (No. 16CG40). This work was partially supported by Shanghai Leading Academic Discipline Project (B604).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11270_2019_4307_MOESM1_ESM.docx (71 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 71 kb)


  1. Abu Talha, M., Goswami, M., Giri, B. S., Sharma, A., Rai, B. N., & Singh, R. S. (2018). Bioremediation of Congo red dye in immobilized batch and continuous packed bed bioreactor by Brevibacillus parabrevis using coconut shell biochar. Bioresource Technology, 252, 37–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ali, A., Bilal, M., Khan, R., Farooq, R., & Siddique, M. (2018). Ultrasound-assisted adsorption of phenol from aqueous solution by using spent black tea leaves. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25, 22920–22930.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Almeida, E. J. R., & Corso, C. R. (2019). Decolorization and removal of toxicity of textile azo dyes using fungal biomass pelletized. International journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 16, 1319–1328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barsing, P., Tiwari, A., Joshi, T., & Garg, S. (2011). Application of a novel bacterial consortium for mineralization of sulphonated aromatic amines. Bioresource Technology, 102, 765–771.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cao, J., Sanganyado, E., Liu, W., Zhang, W., & Liu, Y. (2019). Decolorization and detoxification of Direct Blue 2B by indigenous bacterial consortium. Journal of Environmental Management, 242, 229–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chaudhari, A. U., Paul, D., Dhotre, D., & Kodam, K. M. (2017). Effective biotransformation and detoxification of anthraquinone dye reactive blue 4 by using aerobic bacterial granules. Water Research, 122, 603–613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen, C.-Y., Tsai, T.-H., Wu, P.-S., Tsao, S.-E., Huang, Y.-S., & Chung, Y.-C. (2018). Selection of electrogenic bacteria for microbial fuel cell in removing Victoria blue R from wastewater. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A-Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering, 53, 108–115.Google Scholar
  8. Cheng, N., Li, Q., Tang, A., Su, W., & Liu, Y. (2018). Decolorization of a variety of dyes by Aspergillus flavus A5p1. Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering, 41, 511–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cui, M.-H., Cui, D., Liang, B., Sangeetha, T., Wang, A.-J., & Cheng, H.-Y. (2016). Decolorization enhancement by optimizing azo dye loading rate in an anaerobic reactor. RSC Advances, 6, 49995–50001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cui, D., Shen, D., Wu, C., Li, C., Leng, D., & Zhao, M. (2017). Biodegradation of aniline by a novel bacterial mixed culture AC. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 125, 86–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Deniz, F., & Yildiz, H. (2019). Bioremediation potential of a widespread industrial biowaste as renewable and sustainable biosorbent for synthetic dye pollution. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 21, 259–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Haq, I., Raj, A., & Markandeya. (2018). Biodegradation of Azure-B dye by Serratia liquefaciens and its validation by phytotoxicity, genotoxicity and cytotoxicity studies. Chemosphere, 196, 58–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Holkar, C. R., Pandit, A. B., & Pinjari, D. V. (2014). Kinetics of biological decolorisation of anthraquinone based Reactive Blue 19 using an isolated strain of Enterobacter sp. F NCIM 5545. Bioresource Technology, 173, 342–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hou, L., Li, X., Yang, Q., Chen, F., Wang, S., Ma, Y., et al. (2019). Heterogeneous activation of peroxymonosulfate using Mn-Fe layered double hydroxide: Performance and mechanism for organic pollutant degradation. Science of the Total Environment, 663, 453–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kumari, L., Tiwary, D., & Mishra, P. K. (2016). Biodegradation of C.I. Acid Red 1 by indigenous bacteria Stenotrophomonas sp. BHUSSp X2 isolated from dye contaminated soil. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 23, 4054–4062.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Li, P., Chen, X., Zeng, X., Zeng, Y., Xie, Y., Li, X., et al. (2018). Utilization of waste biomass (kitchen waste) hydrolysis residue as adsorbent for dye removal: Kinetic, equilibrium, and thermodynamic studies. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 185, 971–985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lu, X.-M., Ma, L.-H., Wang, Z.-H., & Huang, M.-S. (2010). Application of polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to resolve taxonomic diversity in white rot fungus reactors. Environmental Engineering Science, 27, 493–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mahmood, Q., Masood, F., Bhatti, Z. A., Siddique, M., Bilal, M., Yaqoob, H., et al. (2014). Biological treatment of the dye Reactive Blue 19 by cattails and anaerobic bacterial consortia. Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry, 96, 530–541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Naraghi, B., Zabihi, F., Narooie, M. R., Saeidi, M., & Biglari, H. (2017). Removal of Acid Orange 7 dye from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto Kenya tea pulps; granulated shape. Electronic Physician, 9, 4312–4321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Naz, I., Sadaf, S., Iqbal, J., Ullah, I., & Nawaz, F. (2018). Efficient utilization of bio-energy process residue for removal of Drimarine Yellow HF-3GL dye from aqueous solution. Desalination and Water Treatment, 102, 326–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Pan, F., Yu, Y., Xu, A., Xia, D., Sun, Y., Cai, Z., et al. (2017a). Application of magnetic OMS-2 in sequencing batch reactor for treating dye wastewater as a modulator of microbial community. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 340, 36–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Pan, H., Xu, X., Wen, Z., Kang, Y., Wang, X., Ren, Y., et al. (2017b). Decolorization pathways of anthraquinone dye Disperse Blue 2BLN by Aspergillus sp. XJ-2 CGMCC12963. Bioengineered, 8, 630–641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Patil, C. S., Gunjal, D. B., Naik, V. M., Harale, N. S., Jagadale, S. D., Kadam, A. N., et al. (2019). Waste tea residue as a low cost adsorbent for removal of hydralazine hydrochloride pharmaceutical pollutant from aqueous media: An environmental remediation. Journal of Cleaner Production, 206, 407–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Pavlovic, M. D., Nikolic, I. R., Milutinovic, M. D., Dimitrijevic-Brankovic, S. I., Siler-Marinkovic, S. S., & Antonovic, D. G. (2015). Plant waste materials from restaurants as the adsorbents for dyes. Hemijska Industrija, 69, 667–677.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Piaskowski, K., Swiderska-Dabrowska, R., & Zarzycki, P. K. (2018). Dye removal from water and wastewater using various physical, chemical, and biological processes. Journal of AOAC International, 101, 1371–1384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Qi, M., Huang, H., Zhang, Y., Wang, H., Li, H., & Lu, Z. (2019). Novel tetrahydrofuran (THF) degradation-associated genes and cooperation patterns of a THF-degrading microbial community as revealed by metagenomic. Chemosphere, 231, 173–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Saba, B., Christy, A. D., Park, T., Yu, Z., Li, K., & Tuovinen, O. H. (2018). Decolorization of Reactive Black 5 and Reactive Blue 4 dyes in microbial fuel cells. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 186, 1017–1033.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sekuljica, N. Z., Prlainovic, N. Z., Stefanovic, A. B., Zuza, M. G., Cickaric, D. Z., Mijin, D. Z., et al. (2015). Decolorization of anthraquinonic dyes from textile effluent using horseradish peroxidase: optimization and kinetic study. The Scientific World Journal, 2015, 371625–371625.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Shyla, H., Saha, P., & Rao, K. V. B. (2018). Biodegradation and decolorization of two different azo dyes, Reactive Blue 221 and Direct Black 38, and assessment of the degraded dye metabolites. Desalination and Water Treatment, 123, 338–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Tang, L., Xiao, F., Wei, Q., Liu, Y., Zou, Y., Liu, J., et al. (2019). Removal of active dyes by ultrafiltration membrane pre-deposited with a PSFM coagulant: Performance and mechanism. Chemosphere, 223, 204–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Vikrant, K., Giri, B. S., Raza, N., Roy, K., Kim, K.-H., Rai, B. N., et al. (2018). Recent advancements in bioremediation of dye: Current status and challenges. Bioresource Technology, 253, 355–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wang, W.-L., Cai, Y.-Z., Hu, H.-Y., Chen, J., Wang, J., Xue, G., et al. (2019). Advanced treatment of bio-treated dyeing and finishing wastewater using ozone-biological activated carbon: A study on the synergistic effects. Chemical Engineering Journal, 359, 168–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Xie, X., Fu, J., Wang, H., & Liu, J. (2010). Heavy metal resistance by two bacteria strains isolated from a copper mine tailing in China. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9, 4056–4066.Google Scholar
  34. Xie, X., Liu, N., Yang, B., Yu, C., Zhang, Q., Zheng, X., et al. (2016). Comparison of microbial community in hydrolysis acidification reactor depending on different structure dyes by Illumina MiSeq sequencing. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 111, 14–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Xie, X., Liu, N., Ping, J., Zhang, Q., Zheng, X., & Liu, J. (2018a). Illumina MiSeq sequencing reveals microbial community in HA process for dyeing wastewater treatment fed with different co-substrates. Chemosphere, 201, 578–585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Xie, X., Liu, N., Yang, F., Zhang, Q., Zheng, X., Wang, Y., et al. (2018b). Comparative study of antiestrogenic activity of two dyes after Fenton oxidation and biological degradation. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 164, 416–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Xie, X., Zheng, X., Yu, C., Zhang, Q., Wang, Y., Cong, J., et al. (2019). Highly efficient biodegradation of reactive blue 19 under the activation of tea residue by a newly screened mixed bacterial flora DDMY2. RSC Advances, 9, 24791–24801.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Xu, X., Zheng, Y., Gao, B., & Cao, X. (2019). N-doped biochar synthesized by a facile ball-milling method for enhanced sorption of CO2 and reactive red. Chemical Engineering Journal, 368, 564–572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Yang, Q., Wang, J., Wang, H., Chen, X., Ren, S., Li, X., et al. (2012). Evolution of the microbial community in a full-scale printing and dyeing wastewater treatment system. Bioresource Technology, 117, 155–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Yang, Q., Wang, J., Han, X., Xu, Y., Liu, D., Hao, H., et al. (2014). Analysis of the bacterial community in a full-scale printing and dyeing wastewater treatment system based on T-RFLP and 454 pyrosequencing. Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering, 19, 191–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Yu, C., Xie, X., Zheng, X., Xu, L., Li, R., & Liu, J. (2016). Decolorization and repigmentation of reactive black 5 biodegradation and their mechanisms. Chemical Industry and Engineering Progress, 35, 2987–2996.Google Scholar
  42. Yuan, S., Zhang, N., Wu, X., Qian, Y., Chen, X., Raza, W., et al. (2017). Effect of pruned material, extracts, and polyphenols of tea on enzyme activities and microbial community structure in soil. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 63, 607–615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Zhang, Q., Xie, X., Yu, C., Chen, Y., & Liu, J. (2017). Effects of different co-metabolic substrates on the decolorization of reactive black 5 by bacteria and the community structure of bacterial flora. Chinese Journal of Ecology, 36, 2572–2580.Google Scholar
  44. Zhang, Q., Xie, X., Liu, Y., Zheng, X., Wang, Y., Cong, J., et al. (2019). Fructose as an additional co-metabolite promotes refractory dye degradation: Performance and mechanism. Bioresource Technology, 280, 430–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Zheng, X., Xie, X., Yu, C., Zhang, Q., Wang, Y., Cong, J., et al. (2019). Unveiling the activating mechanism of tea residue for boosting the biological decolorization performance of refractory dye. Chemosphere, 233, 110–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zhou, J. Z., Bruns, M. A., & Tiedje, J. M. (1996). DNA recovery from soils of diverse composition. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 62, 316–322.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Environmental Science and EngineeringDonghua UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.State Environmental Protection Engineering Center for Pollution Treatment and Control in Textile IndustryDonghua UniversityShanghaiChina
  3. 3.Shanghai Institute of Pollution Control and Ecological SecurityShanghaiChina
  4. 4.School of Environment and Surveying EngineeringSuzhou UniversitySuzhouChina
  5. 5.School of Metallurgy and EnvironmentCentral South UniversityChangshaChina

Personalised recommendations