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Water, Air, & Soil Pollution

, 230:249 | Cite as

Rapid Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Water Samples Using an Automated On-line Two-Dimensional Liquid Chromatography

  • Canan Armutcu
  • Erdoğan Özgür
  • Tunca Karasu
  • Engin Bayram
  • Lokman Uzun
  • Mehmet Emin ÇormanEmail author
Article

Abstract

Two-dimensional HPLC (2D-HPLC) recently has received great attention due to providing high resolving power and higher peak capacities than that of 1D-HPLC, especially dealing with a wide spectrum of sample matrices containing several components. In this work, an on-line heart-cutting two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) method was developed using monolithic columns coupled with reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC). 2D-HPLC was successfully carried out using affinity-based monolithic columns at first dimension (20 cm × 4.6 mm I.D.) followed by a Pinnacle II PAH column (50 mm × 4.6 mm I.D.) at the second dimension. Furthermore, good linearity was observed for the correlation of the benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) molecule against the peak areas (R2 = 0.994) in the concentration range of 0.01–1.0 ng/mL in 30 min. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification were found to be 4.0 pg/mL and 12.0 pg/mL, respectively. Both the intra-day and inter-day precision at 0.01 and 0.1 ng/mL spiked concentrations were below than 2.35% RSD whereas the means of the recovery data of the BaP from the water samples were found to be in the range of 93.71–98.65%. These results demonstrate that the 2D-HPLC system, developed by the combination of the P(HEMA-MAPA) column and Pinnacle II PAH column, is reliable, stable, and well qualified in the extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the water samples.

Keywords

Two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) monolithic column water samples 

Notes

Funding Information

This study was supported by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey with grant number TUBITAK-KBAG-214Z236. L.U. would like to thank Turkish Academy of Sciences (TUBA-GEBIP) for their invaluable support.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Science, Department of ChemistryHacettepe UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.Advanced Technologies Application and Research CenterHacettepe UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  3. 3.Faculty of Science and Arts, Department of ChemistrySinop UniversitySinopTurkey

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