Water, Air, & Soil Pollution

, 230:238 | Cite as

Brackish Water Desalination: An Effective Pretreatment Process for Reverse Osmosis Systems

  • George M. AyoubEmail author
  • Lea Korban
  • M. Al-Hindi
  • R. Zayyat


Fouling and scaling of membranes in reverse osmosis (R.O.) units presents a major impediment to the effective and efficient operation of the system. Consequently, pretreatment of the water that is destined for R.O. application is mandatory. The choice of the type of pretreatment to be used depends on the quality of the raw water which may range from conventional treatment to membrane-based pretreatment applications. The objective of the study is to investigate a process that could effectively eliminate most or possibly all of the fouling/scaling materials which could be present in polluted brackish water including suspended and dissolved solids in the form of calcium, magnesium, silica, strontium, boron, iron, and microorganisms. In this context, the use of different chemicals that will effectively induce precipitation of the various foulants/scalants such as lime (Ca(OH)2), caustic soda (NaOH), and soda ash (Na2CO3) will be evaluated under different operating conditions namely pH and temperature, and the results optimized so as to arrive at an effective, efficient, and sustainable pretreatment process.


Reverse osmosis Pretreatment Fouling Brackish water 


Supplementary material

11270_2019_4299_MOESM1_ESM.docx (50 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 50 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringAmerican University of BeirutBeirutLebanon
  2. 2.Baha and Walid Bassatne Department of Chemical Engineering and Advanced EnergyAmerican University of BeirutBeirutLebanon

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