Role of AM Fungi in the Uptake and Accumulation of Cd and Ni by Luffa aegyptiaca
- 29 Downloads
Sponge gourd (Luffa aegyptiaca) was grown in pots with and without inoculation with two arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, viz., Glomus macrocarpum and Glomus monosporum singly and in combination. Seven-day-old plants were treated with 18.9 μg Cd g−1 soil and 155.4 μg Ni g−1 soil alone and in combination. At 90 days old stage, dry weight of root, shoot, and fruit; uptake of heavy metals in root, stem, leaves, and fruits; percent mycorrhizal root colonization; and spore number in the root zone were determined. When applied singly, the uptake of Cd and Ni in host plants was enhanced more effectively by G. monosporum than G. macrocarpum. The larger proportion of Cd uptake in uninoculated host was retained in the roots but in inoculated plants (with both Glomus sp.), major amounts of the Cd were translocated to the above ground parts including fruits. The leaves were the main sinks of Ni in inoculated plants. The overall tissue burden of both heavy metals in the host was enhanced relatively more effectively on association with G. monosporum as compared with G. macrocarpum. The uptake of Cd was relatively higher in plants treated with both the metals and both the AM fungi. Despite the relatively higher uptake of both the heavy metals in inoculated plants, the host dry weight was significantly higher compared with uninoculated plants. The percent mycorrhizal root colonization of the host by both AM fungi was higher in plants grown without either of the heavy metals. The combined application of both the heavy metals reduced the spore density in the root zone soil of host. The results show that the AM fungi enhanced the uptake of Cd and Ni by the host but alleviated the toxicity by promoting plant growth.
KeywordsLuffa aegyptiaca Ganga river Tannery effluents AM fungi Heavy metals
Department of Botany, AMU, for required supplies and laboratory facilities is gratefully acknowledged.
This study was financially supported by the University Grants Commission of India.
Compliance with ethical standards
There is no conflict of interest associated with this publication; there has been financial support by University Grand commission of India and support from Department of Botany, AMU, for required laboratory facilities that could influence its outcome. On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author confirmed that manuscript was approved for submission.
- Bagyaraj, D. J. (2014). Interaction between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and the soil organisms and their role in sustainable agriculture. In D. P. Singh & H. B. Singh (Eds.), Trends in soil microbial ecology (pp. 257–280). Houston: Studium Press LLC.Google Scholar
- Bagyaraj, D. J., & Ashwin, R. (2017) Can mycorrhizal fungi influence plant diversity and production in an ecosystem? Microbes for Restoration of Degraded Ecosystems, pp 1-17Google Scholar
- Bagyaraj, D. J., Sharma, M. P., & Maiti, D. (2015). Special Section: Sustainable Phosphorus Management Phosphorus nutrition of crops through arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Current Science, 108(7), 1288–1293.Google Scholar
- CPCB (Central Pollution Control Board) (2013) Pollution assessment: river Ganga, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt. of India.Google Scholar
- Huang, Y., Tao, S., & Chen, Y. J. (2005). The role of mycorrhiza on change of heavy metal speciation in rhizosphere of maize in wastewater irrigated agricultural soil. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 17(2), 276–280.Google Scholar
- IBM® USA. (2009). SPSS Statistics Editions. USA: IBM Corporation Software Group.Google Scholar
- Javaid, A. (2011). Importance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. In M. Khan, A. Zaidi, R. Goel, & J. Musarrat (Eds.), Biomanagement of metal-contaminated soils. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
- Kalam, S. U., Naushin, F., & Khan, F. A. (2019a). Comparative assessment of four toxic heavy metals occurring in the river beds of Ganga at three major cities of U.P. India Journal Biology Chemical Research, 36(1), 86–91.Google Scholar
- Lei, F., Jiangping, F., Chengshuo, Z., & Tengfei, H. (2015). Control approaches to soil pollution from heavy metal. Meterological and Environmental Research, 6(2), 33–34.Google Scholar
- Narain, S. (2014) GANGA: The river, its pollution and what we can do to clean it, Centre for Science and Environment.Google Scholar
- NGRBP (National Ganga River Basin Project) (2015) The World Bank.Google Scholar
- Pandey, S., & Karmakar, P. (2014). River bed cultivation of cucurbits, Vegetable Newsletter. ICASR – Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, 1(1).Google Scholar
- Perez, A., & Vertel, M. (2010). Evaluacion de la colonization de micorrizas arbusculares en pasto. Bothriochloa pertusa Revista MVZ, 15(3), 2165–2174.Google Scholar
- Phillips, J.M., & Hayman, D.S. (1970). Improved procedures for clearing roots and staining parasitic and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for rapid assessment of infection. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 55 (1):158-160Google Scholar
- Thangavelu, M., & Bagyaraj, D.J. (2010). Use of arbuscular mycorhizal in phytoremediaion of heavy metal contaminated soils. Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences, India - Section B: Biological Sciences 80:103-112Google Scholar
- U.S. E.P.A. (1995). Test methods for evaluating solid waste, physical/ chemical methods, SW-846 (3rd ed.). Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
- Val, C. D., Barea, J. M., & Azcon-Aguilar, C. (1999). Diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus populations in heavy-metal-contaminated soils. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 65(2), 718–723.Google Scholar
- Weissenhorn, I., Leyval, C., Belgy, G., & Berthelin, J. (1995). Arbuscular mycorrhizal contribution to heavy metal uptake by maize (Zea mays L.) in pot culture with contaminated soil. Mycorrhiza, 5(4), 245–251.Google Scholar
- Yang, Y., Han, X., Liang, Y., Ghosh, A., Chen, J., & Tang, M. (2015). The combined effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and lead (Pb) stress on Pb accumulation, plant growth parameters, photosynthesis, and antioxidant enzymes in Robinia pseudoacacia L. PLoS One, 10(12), 1–24.Google Scholar
- Yi, H., Shu, T., & You-Jian, C. (2005). The role of arbuscular mycorrhiza on change of heavy metals speciation in rhizosphere of maize in wastewater irrigated agriculture soil. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 17(2), 276–280.Google Scholar
- Zaefarian, F., Rezvani, M., Ardakani, M. R., Rejali, F., & Miransari, M. (2013). Impact of mycorrhiza formation on the phosphorus and heavy-metal uptake of alfalfa. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 44, 1340–1352.Google Scholar