Water, Air, & Soil Pollution

, 230:216 | Cite as

Uptake of Cd and Pb from Aqueous Solutions Using Selected Tree Leaves Through Phytoremediation

  • A. M. MassadehEmail author
  • H. A. Massadeh


Leaves of five selected plants Citrus limon (Rutaceae), Ceratonia siliqua L., Olea europaea (Oleaceae), Washingtonia filifera, and Myoporum (Myoporaceae) grown in Jordan were examined for removal of heavy metals (cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) ions) for aqueous solutions. Cd and Pb were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. A pH S-2 acidometer was used for determining the acidity of leaves–solution systems. Results indicated that those plant leaves were efficient for removal of metals compared with the efficiency of activated carbon. Removal of a 5 mg/L aqueous metal solution of Cd and Pb was treated with 2.5 g of oven-dried plant in 50 mL deionized water. The metal removal was expressed as a function of time ranging between 0 and 192 h of contact time. The uptake of Cd and Pb by leaves of the plants was arranged in the following order: (i) for Cd, activated carbon > Olea europaea (Oleaceae) > Ceratonia siliqua L. > Washingtonia filifera > Citrus limon (Rutaceae) > Myoporum (Myoporaceae); (ii) for Pb, activated carbon > Olea europaea (Oleaceae) > Ceratonia siliqua L. > Washingtonia filifera > Citrus limon (Rutaceae) > Myoporum (Myoporaceae).


Lead Cadmium Plant leaves Uptake AAS Analysis 



Authors are grateful to the Deanship of Scientific Research at Jordan University of Science and Technology for providing facilities to perform this research.

Funding Information

This study was funded by the Deanship of Scientific Research at Jordan University of Science and Technology.


  1. Ahmadpour, P., Ahmadpour, F., Mahmud, T., Abdu, A., Soleimani, M., & Hosseini, T. F. (2012). Phytoremediation of heavy metals: a green technology. African Journal of Biotechnology, 11, 14036–14043.Google Scholar
  2. Ali, H., Khan, E., & Sajad, M. A. (2013). Phytoremediation of heavy metals-concepts and applications. Chemosphere, 91(7), 869–881.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alfarra, S. R., Ali, E. N., & Yusoff, M. M. (2014). Removal of heavy metals by natural adsorbent: review. International Journal of Bioscience, 4(7), 130–139.Google Scholar
  4. Barakat, M. A. (2011). New trends in removing heavy metals from industrial wastewater. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 4(4), 361–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bhattacharya, T., Banerjee, D. K., & Gopal, B. (2006). Heavy metal uptake by Scirpus littoralis Schrad from fly ash dosed and metal spiked soils. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 121(1–3), 363–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cameron, R. E. (1992). Guide to site and soil description of hazardous waste site characterization, volume 1: metals. Environmental protection Agency EPA/600/4-91/029.Google Scholar
  7. Chandra, S. K., Kamala, C. T., Chary, N. C., & Anjaneyulu, Y. (2003). Removal of heavy metals using a plant biomass with reference to environmental control. International Journal of Mineral Processing, 68(1–4), 37–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Divrikli, U., Horzum, N., Soylak, M., & Elci, L. (2006). Trace heavy metal contents of some spices and herbal plants from western Anatolia, Turkey. International Journal of Food and Technology, 41(6), 712–716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gharaibeh, S. H., Abu-El-Sha’r, W. Y., & Al-Kofahi, M. M. (1999). Removal of selected heavy metals from aqueous solutions using processed solid by product from the Jordanian oil shale refining. Environmental Geology, 39(2), 113–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gharaibeh, S. H., Abu-El-Sha’r, W. Y., & Al-Kofahi, M. M. (1998). Removal of selected heavy metals from aqueous solutions using processed solid residue of olive mill products. Water Research, 32(2), 498–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Laghlimi, M., Baghdad, B., El Hadi, H., & Bouabdli, A. (2015). Phytoremediation mechanisms of heavy metal contaminated soils: a review. Open Journal of Ecology, 5, 375–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Massadeh, A. M., Alomary, A. A., Mir, S., Momani, F. A., Haddad, H. I., & Hadad, Y. A. (2016a). Analysis of Zn, Cd, As, Cu, Pb, and Fe in snails as bioindicators and soil samples near traffic road by ICP-OES. Journal of Environment and Science Pollution Research, 23(13), 13424–11343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Massadeh, A. M., & Al-Massaedh, A. A. (2018). Determination of heavy metals in canned fruits and vegetables sold in Jordan market. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25, 1914–1920.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Massadeh, A. M., Baker, H. M., Obeidat, M. M., Shakatreh, S. K., Obeidat, B. A., & Abu-Nameh, E. S. (2011). Analysis of lead and cadmium in selected leafy and non-leafy edible vegetables using atomic absorption spectrometry. Soil and Sediment Contamination: An International Journal, 20, 306–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Massadeh, A. M., El-Rjoob, A.-W. O., & Al-Omari, M. N. (2016b). Assessment of heavy metals in different parts of Ruta chalepensis rutacea L. medicinal plant and soil samples in selected zones in Jordan. Soil and Sediment Contamination: International Journal, 25(6), 587–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Moosavi, S. G., & Seghatoleslami, M. J. (2013). Phytoremediation: a review. Advance in Agriculture and Biology, 1, 5–11.Google Scholar
  17. Moreno, F. N., Anderson, C. W., Stewart, R. B., & Robinson, B. (2008). Phytofiltration of mercury-contaminated water: volatilisation and plant-accumulation aspects. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 62(1), 78–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mulligan, C. N., Young, R. N., & Gibbs, B. F. (2001). Removal of heavy metals from contaminated land and sediments using the biosurfactant. Engineering Geology, 8, 231–254.Google Scholar
  19. Murugavelh, S., & Vinothumar, D. (2010). Removal of heavy metals from waste water using different biosorbents. Current World Environment, 5(2), 299–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Nouri, J., Khorasani, N., Lorestani, B., Karami, M., Hassani, A. H., & Yousef, N. (2009). Accumulation of heavy metals in soil and uptake by plant species with phytoremediation potential. Environmental Earth Science, 59, 315–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ochonogor, R. O., & Atagana, H. I. (2014). Phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil by Psoralea pinnata. International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, 5, 440–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Prasad, M. N., & Freitas, H. (2000). Removal of toxic metals from solution by leaf, stem and root phytomass of Quercus ilex L. (holly oak). Environmental Pollution, 110, 277–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rad, A. C., & Malayeri, B. (2007). Removal of heavy metals by native accumulator plants. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 9(3), 462–465.Google Scholar
  24. Ricous, P., Lecuyer, I., & Le Cloirec, P. (1998). Influence of pH on removal of heavy metallic cations by fly ash in aqueous solution. Environmental Technology, 19(10), 1005–1016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Shafaghat, A., Salimi, F., Valiei, M., Salehzadeh, J., & Shafaghat, M. (2012). Removal of heavy metals (Pb2+, Cu2+ and Cr3+) from aqueous solutions using five plants materials. African Journal of Biotechnology, 11(4), 852–855.Google Scholar
  26. Sinha, S., Mishra, R. K., Sinam, G., Mallick, S., & Gupta, A. K. (2013). Comparative evaluation of metal phytoremediation potential of trees, grasses and flowering plants from tannery wastewater contaminated soil in relation with physico-chemical properties. Soil and Sediment Contamination: An International Journal, 22, 958–983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Soylak, M., & Narin, I. (2005). On-line preconcentration system for cadmium determination in environmental samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Chemica Analityczna, 50(4), 705–715.Google Scholar
  28. Taylor, M., & Kuennen, R. W. (1994). Removing lead in drinking water with activated carbon. Environmental Progress, 13, 65–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Tuzen, M., Uluozlu, O. D., Usta, C., & Soylak, M. (2006). Biosorption of copper(II), lead(II), iron (III) and cobalt(II) on Bacillus sphaericus-loaded Diaion SP-850 resin. Analytica Chimica Acta, 581(2), 241–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wan, N. W. & Hanafiah, M. A. (2008). Removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater by chemically modified plant wastes as adsorbents: a review. Bioresource Technology, 99 (10), 3935–3948.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Xu, M., & Lu, N. (2012). Research on removing heavy metals from mine tailings. Disaster Advances, 5, 116–120.Google Scholar
  32. Zadeh, J. S. (2013). Removal of heavy metals Pb2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Ni2+, Co2+ and Fe3+ from aqueous solutions by using Xanthium pensylvanicum. Leonardo Journal of Sciences, 23, 97–104.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy Faculty of PharmacyJordan University of Science and TechnologyIrbidJordan
  2. 2.Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Faculty of MedicineJordan University of Science and TechnologyIrbidJordan

Personalised recommendations