Copper and Zinc in Rhizosphere Soil and Toxicity Potential in White Oats (Avena sativa) Grown in Soil with Long-Term Pig Manure Application

  • Lucas BenedetEmail author
  • Lessandro De Conti
  • Cleiton Junior Ribeiro Lazzari
  • Vilmar Müller Júnior
  • Deborah Pinheiro Dick
  • Cledimar Rogério Lourenzi
  • Paulo Emílio Lovato
  • Jucinei José Comin
  • Tadeu Luis Tiecher
  • Felipe Klein Ricachenevsky
  • Gustavo Brunetto


Successive applications of pig manure increase Cu and Zn contents in soils and may cause toxicity to plants. However, plants may have defense strategies that reduce Cu and Zn availability in rhizosphere soil. The study aimed to evaluate growth of white oats (Avena sativa) and Cu and Zn availability in rhizosphere soil subjected to long-term applications of pig slurry (PS) and pig deep litter (PL). The study was carried out with samples of a Typic Hapludalf soil from an 11-year experiment with annual fertilization of 180 kg N ha−1 as pig slurry (PS180) and pig deep litter (PL180) and a control (C) treatment. White oats were grown in pots with soil collected at 0.0–0.10 m depth. Thirty-five and 70 days after emergence (DAE), rhizosphere (RS) and bulk soil (BS) were analyzed to determine Cu and Zn availability. Plant growth, tissue Cu and Zn concentration, and content (concentration X dry weight) were measured. The application of pig manure for 11 years increased available soil Cu and Zn, as well as tissue concentration and content. Dry matter yield and plant height in PL180 were similar to those found in plants grown in the control treatment, while plants grown in PS180 had higher dry matter than in C. We found few differences in soil chemical characteristics and Cu and Zn contents between RS and BS. The high Cu concentrations in roots, especially in soil treated with PL180, show that Cu retention in the roots prevents excess Cu transport to white oat shoots.


Cu and Zn availability Pig slurry Pig deep litter Roots 


Funding Information

Funding was received from Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) (Project 479005/2011), Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento da Educação Superior (Brasil-CAPES/Finance Code 001), Fundação de Apoio à Pesquisa e Inovação no Estado de Santa Catarina (FAPESC) (11.339/2012-5), and Tecnologias Sociais para a Gestão das Águas (TSGA II)-Petrobrás Ambiental Project (6000.00029243072).

Supplementary material

11270_2019_4249_MOESM1_ESM.docx (35 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 34 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lucas Benedet
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Lessandro De Conti
    • 3
  • Cleiton Junior Ribeiro Lazzari
    • 4
  • Vilmar Müller Júnior
    • 5
  • Deborah Pinheiro Dick
    • 6
  • Cledimar Rogério Lourenzi
    • 2
  • Paulo Emílio Lovato
    • 2
  • Jucinei José Comin
    • 2
  • Tadeu Luis Tiecher
    • 7
  • Felipe Klein Ricachenevsky
    • 8
  • Gustavo Brunetto
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Soil ScienceFederal University of LavrasLavrasBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Rural Engineering, Center of Agricultural SciencesFederal University of Santa CatarinaFlorianópolisBrazil
  3. 3.Department of Soil Science, Center of Rural ScienceFederal University of Santa MariaSanta MariaBrazil
  4. 4.Department of Agronomy, Agroveterinary Sciences CenterUniversity of the State of Santa CatarinaLagesBrazil
  5. 5.Department of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering, Technological CenterFederal University of Santa CatarinaFlorianópolisBrazil
  6. 6.Physicochemical Department, Institute of ChemistryFederal University of Rio Grande do SulPorto AlegreBrazil
  7. 7.Federal Institute FarroupilhaAlegreteBrazil
  8. 8.Department of Biology, Center for Natural and Exact SciencesFederal University of Santa MariaSanta MariaBrazil

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