Water, Air, & Soil Pollution

, 230:215 | Cite as

Enhanced Bioremediation of Heavy Metal Contaminated Landfill Soil Using Filamentous Fungi Consortia: a Demonstration of Bioaugmentation Potential

  • Auwalu Hassan
  • Agamuthu Pariatamby
  • Aziz Ahmed
  • Helen Shnada Auta
  • Fauziah Shahul HamidEmail author


This study aimed to determine the mycoremediative capacity of filamentous fungi consortia in landfill heavy metal contaminated soil. Streak plate method was utilized for the isolation of fungi from the landfill soil. Isolates were identified using morphological and molecular techniques. Heavy metal tolerance of the fungi was determined using radial growth diameter technique. Twelve species of landfill indigenous fungi were used for the bioremediation process. Two categories of fungi consortia namely highly tolerant fungi (Perenniporia subtephropora, Daldinia starbaeckii, Phanerochaete concrescens, Cerrena aurantiopora, Fusarium equiseti, Polyporales sp., Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Trametes versicolor) and moderately tolerant fungi (Paecilomyces lilacinus, Antrodia serialis, and Penicillium cataractum) were used to amend the contaminated soil; meanwhile, the unamended soil served as control. Maximum tolerance index of 1.0 was reported in Cr-, Cu-, and Fe-amended PDA medium. Meanwhile, the maximum heavy metal bioremoval efficiencies were for highly tolerant fungal consortium treated soil and were recorded as As (62%) > Mn (59%) > Cu (49%) > Cr (42%) > Fe (38%). Likewise, the maximum metal removal rate constant (K) and the half-lives (t1/2) were 0.0097/day 71 days, 0.0088/day 79 days, 0.0067/day 103 days, 0.0054/day 128 days, and 0.0048/day 144 days for As, Mn, Cu, Cr, and Fe, respectively, which were all for soil treated with consortium of highly tolerant fungi (P. subtephropora, D. starbaeckii, P. concrescens, C. aurantiopora, F. equiseti, Polyporales sp., A. niger, A. fumigatus, and T. versicolor). Spectra analysis revealed a clear distinction in the functional groups between the fungal treated and the untreated soils. Peaks at 874 ± 2 cm−1 and 1425 ± 2 cm−1 were only found in fungi amended soil. Physicochemical parameters mainly pH and redox potential played a key role in the bioremediation process, and bioaccumulation was believed to be the favored mechanism for the metal bioremoval. The data are suitable for assessing the contribution of bioaugmentation with consortia of fungi. It is equally important for assessing the synergistic effect of fungi on the reduction of extractable heavy metals in contaminated soil.


Bioaugmentation Bioaccumulation Filamentous fungi Heavy metals Consortium Soil pollution 


Funding Information

This work was funded by the University of Malaya with the research grants RP011A-14SUS and PG070-2014B.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  2. 2.Center for Research in Waste Management, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  3. 3.Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of ScienceFederal UniversityKashereNigeria
  4. 4.Faculty of Marine SciencesLasbela University of Agriculture, Water and Marine SciencesUthalPakistan
  5. 5.Department of MicrobiologyFederal University of TechnologyMinnaNigeria

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