Pesticide Dissipation and Enzyme Activities in Ungrassed and Grassed Biomixtures, Composed of Winery Wastes, Used in Biobed Bioremediation Systems
The biomixture composition and the presence of a grass layer in a biobed bioremediation system can improve the performance of these systems to minimize pesticide point-source contamination. In this study, a novel biomixture composed with organic wastes from vineyards and wine industries (vermicompost of winery wastes and vine shoots) and top soil (W) was elaborated. The impact of three pesticides, commonly used in vineyards, on its microbial activity and on the development of turfgrass was determined in a short-term experiment. Moreover, the dissipation of the assayed pesticides was evaluated to stablish their distribution patterns between the turfgrass and the biomixture. For comparison, the original biomixture composed with top soil, peat, and straw (P) was also studied. After 15 days of pesticide application, the development of the turfgrass in both biomixtures was similar. However, the oxidoreductases (dehydrogenase and ortho-diphenol oxidase) and the hydrolytic (FDA and β-glucosidase) enzyme activities were greater in W-biomixture than in P-biomixture. The dissipation of metalaxyl and imidacloprid recorded in the W-biomixtures was significantly greater than in the P-biomixtures. The pesticide dissipation in W-biomixtures followed the same order of their octanol water partition coefficients. Except for tebuconazole, the lower biological activity in the P-biomixture would explain the limited pesticide dissipation. In the grassed biomixtures, most (> 83%) of the non-dissipated imidacloprid and tebuconazole remained in the biomixtures, while metalaxyl was rapidly translocated to the aerial part of the turfgrass. Our results show the potential capability of the novel biomixture as an alternative to the original one in a biobed.
KeywordsTurfgrass Oxidoreductase enzymes Hydrolytic enzymes Insecticide Fungicides Mass balance
This work was supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness co-funded by European funds through the project CTM2013-44271-R. Authors thank Celia Cifuentes for their technical assistance.
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