Cellular Responses of Chlorococcum Sp. Algae Exposed to Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles by Using Flow Cytometry
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Evaluation of 50 nm zinc oxide nanoparticles’ (ZnO-NPs) effects on the microalgae Chlorococcum sp. growing in high salt growth medium (HSM) was investigated by using flow cytometry parameters (cell size (FSC), granularity (SSC), chlorophyll a fluorescence (FL3), and formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)). Algal cells in exponential growth were exposed to 0–100 mg/L of ZnO-NPs and their physiological responses were measured after 24 and 96 h of treatment. Behavior of ZnO-NPs was analyzed in HSM and results indicated that ZnO-NPs formed agglomeration with a large distribution. Total soluble Zn concentration increased when initial ZnO-NP concentration increased. Significant negative effect on algal cells was observed after 96 h exposition and at high ZnO-NP concentration. This negative impact was evaluated by the significant increase in ROS production, inhibition in the photosynthetic electron transport, and reduction in cell growth. In this study, using flow cytometry multi-parameters might help to prevent and evaluate inhibitory effect of oxide nanoparticles on aquatic photosynthetic microorganisms.
KeywordsChlorococcum sp. Zinc oxide nanoparticles ZnO-NPs Reactive oxygen species Flow cytometry
Conceived and designed the experiments: AO. Performed the experiments: AO, IH. Analyzed the data: AO, IH, MS. Wrote the paper: AO, MS.
This work was supported through funding from the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC), the Canada Research Chairs program (CRC), and Canada Foundation for Innovation.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
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