Effect of the Simultaneous Action of Zinc and Chromium on Arthrobacter spp.
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Bacteria are regarded as the most effective in the detoxification of heavy metals, being environmental compatible. Metalloresistant bacteria are usually found in nature in highly contaminated environment where they interact with a combination of several toxic metals. For the present research, Arthrobacter oxydans and Arthrobacter globiformis have been isolated from the soil samples of the most polluted regions of Georgia, rich with manganese and iron, and contain co-produced toxic metals such as Cr, V, Zn, Ni, Pb, and Mo. We have studied the effects of the metals with different valence/charge on the metalloresistant Arthrobacter spp., the divalent cation—Zn(II) and the hexavalent anion—Cr(VI). The permanent presence of a nontoxic concentration of zinc alone or zinc together with the subtoxic concentration of chromium at the growth of A. oxydans and A. globiformis as batch culture causes the activation of the zinc primary uptake system transporters from the ZIP family (Zrt1). Chromium does not affect the process. The studied Arthrobacter spp. differ by the character of the activation of the antioxidant defense system. Chromium and zinc concomitant action causes the strongest oxidative stress in the case of A. globiformis that is demonstrated by the increased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. In the case of A. oxydans, the zinc separate action, and the joint action of zinc and chromium decreases the activity of SOD and catalase. The antioxidant system is active in A. globiformis at the prolonged action of metals (96 h), whereas the cells of A. oxyidans activate the other defense mechanisms to survive.
KeywordsMetal toxicity Arthrobacter species Catalase Superoxide dismutase
This work was supported by grants (#2016-39) from the Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation (SRNSF) and (#6304) from the Science and Technology Center in Ukraine (STCU).
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