Water, Air, & Soil Pollution

, 229:382 | Cite as

Coagulation Behavior and Floc Properties of Dosing Different Alkaline Neutralizers into the Fenton Oxidation Effluent

  • Min Xu
  • Changyong WuEmail author
  • Yanan Li
  • Yuexi ZhouEmail author
  • Hao Xue
  • Yin Yu


Neutralization is the necessary operation to ensure the Fenton effluent pH. In situ coagulation can be induced during neutralization. In this study, three types of alkaline neutralizers (Ca(OH)2, NaOH, and Ca(OH)2 + NaOH) were added into the Fenton oxidized PSE to control the effluent pH of 6 to 9. The coagulation behavior, floc structure, and properties were investigated. The results indicated that the coagulation with the adding of three neutralizers can remove 9.68 to 24.02% of the TOC. Ca(OH)2 exhibited the highest TOC removal efficiency at the dosage of 0.4 g/L. Charge neutralization ability was in the following order: Ca(OH)2 > Ca(OH)2 + NaOH > NaOH. Ca(OH)2 and Ca(OH)2 + NaOH showed the increase of floc growth rate with the increase of agent dosage, especially for Ca(OH)2 + NaOH. Moreover, Df of NaOH flocs was higher than that of Ca(OH)2 and Ca(OH)2 + NaOH, indicating the floc formed by NaOH was more compact than that of Ca(OH)2. The main coagulation process of three neutralizers was different, and it was also affected by the agent dosage (or pH). When the dosage was 0.35 g/L (pH 6–7.5), the complexation, adsorption, and bridging were the predominant processes while charge neutralization gradually became the main coagulation process for Ca(OH)2 and Ca(OH)2 + NaOH with the increase of dosage (pH 7.5–9).


Alkaline neutralizer Dosage Coagulation behavior Floc properties Fenton oxidation effluent 



Anoxic/oxic process


Advanced oxidation process


Calcium hydroxide


Chemical oxygen demand


The median volumetric diameter


Fractal dimension


Dissolved organic carbon


Dissolved organic matters


Ferric hydroxide


Infrared spectroscopy


Nitric acid


Hydrogen peroxide


Hydroxyl radicals


Image pro plus


Potassium bromide


Sodium hydroxide


Petrochemical secondary effluent


Petrochemical wastewater treatment plant


Response surface methodology


Scanning electron microscopy


Suspended solids


Transmission electron microscopy


Total organic carbon




X-ray diffractometer


Funding Information

The work is financially supported by the China special S&T project on treatment and control of water pollution (2017ZX07402002).


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk AssessmentChinese Research Academy of Environmental SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.College of Water ScienceBeijing Normal UniversityBeijingChina
  3. 3.Research Center of Water Pollution Control TechnologyChinese Research Academy of Environment SciencesBeijingChina
  4. 4.School of Marine Science and Technology and EnvironmentDalian Ocean UniversityDalianChina

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