Combining Sewage Sludge and Clam Shell Waste to Prepare Adsorbents for Efficient Phosphorous Removal
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Effluents containing phosphorous as phosphate ions are frequently discharged in freshwater resources contributing to the eutrophication and directly interfering in the biological equilibrium. Clam shell residues and sewage sludge were combined for preparing efficient adsorbents for phosphate removal from aqueous medium. The adsorbents were characterized before and after adsorption testing, and the adsorption equilibrium and kinetics were investigated. Phosphate removal of 89 ± 1% was attained for samples prepared with 0.1 < X < 1.0, where X corresponds to sewage sludge/clam shell mass ratio. The analyses of the experimental errors indicated that the phosphorous removal followed the Elovich kinetic model, which describes adsorption in very heterogeneous surfaces. On the other hand, the best modelling was achieved using the Koble–Corrigan isotherm model, which incorporate different aspects of both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms to represent the equilibrium data. The observed adsorption capacity (21.4 mgP g−1) are comparable or greater to that observed for other adsorbents described in the literature.
KeywordsSewage sludge Clam shells Phosphorous adsorption Error functions Elovich model Koble-Corrigan model
T. A. Souza would like to thank CAPES – Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Ensino Superior, Ministério da Educação, Brazil, for the scholarship. This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
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