Water, Air, & Soil Pollution

, 229:363 | Cite as

Visible-Light-Driven Photocatalytic N-Doped TiO2 for Degradation of Bisphenol A (BPA) and Reactive Black 5 (RB5) Dye

  • Roziana Kamaludin
  • Mohd Hafiz Dzarfan Othman
  • Siti Hamimah Sheikh Abdul Kadir
  • Ahmad Fauzi Ismail
  • Mukhlis A. Rahman
  • Juhana Jaafar


Bisphenol A (BPA) and reactive black 5 (RB5) dye are among the most persistent and non-biodegradable contaminants in water which require an urgent need for the development of effective removal method. The ubiquitous existence of both contaminants could interfere with the human health and aquatic environmental balance. Photocatalytic process as one of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) has shown high performance for degradation of organic compounds to the harmless materials under sensible condition. Therefore, this study aims to develop a visible-light-driven photocatalyst that can efficiently degrade BPA and RB5 present in household water. N-doped TiO2 were successfully synthesized via simple and direct sol–gel method. The prepared TiO2 nanoparticles were characterized by field emission scanning microscope (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and Brunauere Emmette Teller (BET) analysis. The incorporation of nitrogen in TiO2 lattice exhibited excellent optical responses to visible region as revealed by UV–Vis–NIR spectroscopy absorption capability at 400–600 nm. The photocatalytic activity of the N-doped TiO2 nanoparticles was measured by photocatalytic degradation of BPA and RB5 in an aqueous solution under visible-light irradiations. Degradation of BPA and RB5 was 91.3% and 89.1%, respectively after 360 min illumination. The degradation of BPA and RB5 by N-doped TiO2 was increased up to 89.8% and 88.4%, respectively under visible-light irradiation as compared to commercial TiO2 P25. This finding clearly shows that N-doped TiO2 exhibits excellent photocatalytic degradation of BPA and RB5 under visible irradiation, hence have a promising potential in removing various recalcitrant contaminants for water treatment to fulfill the public need to consume clean water.

Graphical Abstract


N-doped TiO2 Bisphenol A RB5 Photocatalysis Visible light active Sol–gel method 


Funding information

The authors would like to thank the financial support from the Ministry of Education Malaysia under the Higher Institution Centre of Excellence Scheme (Project Number: R.J090301.7846.4J193). The authors would also like to thank the Research Management Centre, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia for the technical support.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Advanced Membrane Technology Research Centre (AMTEC), School of Chemical and Energy EngineeringUniversiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM)Johor BahruMalaysia
  2. 2.Institute of Medical Molecular Biotechnology, Faculty of Medicine, Sungai Buloh Campus, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM)Jalan HospitalSungai BulohMalaysia

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