Heterogeneous Activation of Persulfate by Graphene Oxide-TiO2 Nanosheet for Oxidation of Diclofenac: Optimization by Central Composite Design
- 110 Downloads
In this study, the performance of oxidation with actived persulfate (PS) by graphene oxide-TiO2 nanosheet (GO-TiO2) was investigated for diclofenac (DCF) removal, an anti-inflammatory analgesic being widely used in human health care and veterinary treatment. GO-TiO2 containing oxygen functional groups is employed as an activator for the activation of PS used as the oxidizing agent. Modeling and optimization of the process were performed by central composite design (CCD) as a response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of various factors, including PS concentration, GO-TiO2 amount, initial pH of DCF solution, and reaction time on DCF oxidation, were evaluated. When the estimated values of the full quadratic model obtained with CCD were compared with the actual experimental results, a strong agreement was obtained with an R2 value of 0.9553. Besides, the model consistency was verified by analysis of variance (ANOVA) with a value of 20.17 of F value and P value of less than 0.05. After the optimization run, maximum DCF removal of 93.06% occurred with contact time of 14 min, pH of 5.54, PS concentration of 10 g/L, and 0.1 g of GO-TiO2 as optimal variable values.
KeywordsPersulfate oxidation GO-TiO2 nanosheet Response surface methodology Diclofenac
This work was supported by Kocaeli University Scientific Research Projects (BAP), project no.: HD/47.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- European Commission. (2013). Directive 2013/39/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 August 2013 amending Directives 2000/60/EC and 2008/105/EC as regards priority substances in the field of water policy. O J. L, 226, 1–17.Google Scholar
- Gou, J., Ma, Q., Cui, Y., Deng, X., Zhang, H., Cheng, X., Li, X., Xie, M., Cheng, Q., & Liu, H. (2017). Visible light photocatalytic removal performance and mechanism of diclofenac degradation by Ag3PO4 sub-microcrystals through response surface methodology. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 49, 112–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Karaolia, P., Michael-Kordatou, I., Hapeshi, E., Drosou, C., Bertakis, Y., Christofilos, D., Armatas, G. S., Sygellou, L., Schwartz, T., Xekoukoulotakis, N. P., & Fatta-Kassinos, D. (2018). Removal of antibiotics, antibiotic-resistant bacteria and their associated genes by graphene-based TiO2 composite photocatalysts under solar radiation in urban wastewaters. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 224, 810–824.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Khan, A., Wang, J., Li, J., Wang, X., Chen, Z., Alsaedi, A., Hayat, T., Chen, Y., & Wang, X. (2017). The role of graphene oxide and graphene oxide-based nanomaterials in the removal of pharmaceuticals from aqueous media: A review. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24(9), 7938–7957.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Li, Y., Guo, Y., & Liu, Y. (2005). Synthesis of high purity TiO2 nanoparticles from Ti(SO4)2 in presence of EDTA as complexing agent. ChinaParticuology, 3(4), 240–242.Google Scholar
- Raja, R., Govindaraj, M., Antony, M. D., Krishnan, K., Velusamy, E., Sambandam, A., Subbaiah, M., & Rayar, V. W. (2017). Effect of TiO2/reduced graphene oxide composite thin film as a blocking layer on the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells. Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry, 21, 891–903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zambianchi, M., Durso, M., Liscio, A., Treossia, E., Bettini, C., Capobianco, M. L., Aluigi, A., Kovtun, A., Ruani, G., Corticelli, F., Brucale, M., Palermo, V., Navacchia, M. L., & Melucci, M. (2017). Graphene oxide doped polysulfone membrane adsorbers for the removal of organic contaminants from water. Chemical Engineering Journal, 326, 130–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zhang, Y., Geißen, S. U., & Gal, C. (2008). Carbamazepine and diclofenac: Removal in wastewater treatment plants and occurrence in water bodies. Chemosphere, 73, 151–1161.Google Scholar
- Zhao, J., Liu, Y., Wang, Q., Fu, Y., Lu, X., & Bai, X. (2018). The self-catalysis of ferrate (VI) by its reactive byproducts or reductive substances for the degradation of diclofenac: Kinetics, mechanism and transformation products. Separation and Purification Technology, 192, 412–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar