Advertisement

Is a Road Stormwater Retention Pond Able to Intercept Deicing Salt?

  • Lucie Barbier
  • Rémi Suaire
  • Ivana Durickovic
  • Julien Laurent
  • Marie-Odile Simonnot
Article

Abstract

The amount of deicing salt spread on the road during cold periods increased since the 1940s even though its impact on water quality is well-known. In France, an average of 0.75 tons of salt per kilometre is spread during a winter in order to ensure the users security. The salt is carried by runoff from the road to a retention pond. One of the role of these ponds is to reduce road pollution before runoff joins the environment. The efficiency of the Azerailles retention pond collecting road runoff was assessed regarding NaCl retention. Indeed, an increase in Mg2+, K+, Ca2+, and SO\(_{4}^{2-}\) concentrations correlated to an increase in Cl and Na+ concentrations was observed. These observations were directly linked to the presence of deicing salt on the roadway. Forty-eight percent of the spread salt was collected by the retention pond during the winter maintenance period from December 2016 to April 2017. The high intensity of rainfall during this period had a strong influence on the amount of salt leached from the pond. Almost all of the deicing salt entering the basin was evacuated at the end of March (91%). The sediment analysis showed that sodium from the road flux was not retained in the sediment neither during nor after the salting period.

Keywords

Retention pond Road deicing Sodium chloride Road runoff 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank IFSTTAR for the helpful information and the DRI for the pond access authorisation, as well as for the information on the salting operations. Special thanks to Lucie Framont-Terrasse, Steve Pontvianne, Ludovic Etienne, Jérémy Thiriat, and Claude Trotzier for the technical and scientific support.

Funding Information

This study received financial support from GEMCEA.

References

  1. Amrhein, C., & Strong, J.E. (1990). The effect of deicing salts on trace metal mobility in roadside soils. Journal of Environmental Quality, 19(4), 765–772.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bäckström, M., Nilsson, U., Håkansson, K., Allard, B., Karlsson, S. (2003). Speciation of heavy metals in road runoff and roadside total deposition. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 147(1), 343–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bäckström, M., Karlsson, S., Bäckman, L., Folkeson, L., Lind, B. (2004). Mobilisation of heavy metals by deicing salts in a roadside environment. Water Research, 38(3), 720–732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blomqvist, G. (2001). De-icing salt and the roadside environment : air-borne exposure, damage to Norway spruce and system monitoring. Stockholm: Land and Water Resources Engineering Royal Institute of Technology.Google Scholar
  5. Blomqvist, G., & Johansson, E.L. (1999). Airborne spreading and deposition of de-icing salt—a case study. Science of The Total Environment, 235(1), 161–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chapra, S.C., Dove, A., Rockwell, D.C. (2009). Great lakes chloride trends: long-term mass balance and loading analysis. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 35(2), 272–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Corsi, S.R., De Cicco, L.A., Lutz, M.A., Hirsch, R.M. (2015). River chloride trends in snow-affected urban watersheds: increasing concentrations outpace urban growth rate and are common among all seasons. Science of the Total Environment, 508(Supplement C), 488–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dailey, K.R., Welch, K.A., Lyons, W.B. (2014). Evaluating the influence of road salt on water quality of Ohio rivers over time. Applied Geochemistry, 47, 25–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Daley, M.L., Potter, J.D., McDowell, W.H. (2009). Salinization of urbanizing New Hampshire streams and groundwater: effects of road salt and hydrologic variability. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 28(4), 929–940.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Demers, C., & Sage, R.W. (1990). Effects of road deicing salt on chloride levels in four adirondack streams. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 49(3-4), 369–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Durickovic, I. (2008). Etude par spectroscopie Raman de la salinité résiduelle issue de l’épandage de fondants routiers sur une chaussée. PhD thesis, Université de Metz, France.Google Scholar
  12. Fox, J., & Weisberg, S. (2011). An {R} Companion to Applied Regression, 2nd Edition. http://socserv.socsci.mcmaster.ca/jfox/Books/Companion.
  13. Gallagher, M.T., Snodgrass, J.W., Ownby, D.R., Brand, A.B., Casey, R.E., Lev, S. (2011). Watershed-scale analysis of pollutant distributions in stormwater management ponds. Urban Ecosystems, 14(3), 469–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gillott, J.E. (1978). Effect of deicing agents and sulphate solutions on concrete aggregate. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 11(2), 177–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Godwin, K.S., Hafner, S.D., Buff, M.F. (2003). Long-term trends in sodium and chloride in the Mohawk river, New York: the effect of fifty years of road-salt application. Environmental Pollution, 124(2), 273–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Green, S.M., Machin, R., Cresser, M.S. (2008). Effect of long-term changes in soil chemistry induced by road salt applications on N-transformations in roadside soils. Environmental Pollution, 152(1), 20–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Helmreich, B., Hilliges, R., Schriewer, A., Horn, H. (2010). Runoff pollutants of a highly trafficked urban road—correlation analysis and seasonal influences. Chemosphere, 80(9), 991–997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Howard, K.W.F., & Haynes, J. (1993). Groundwater contamination due to road de-icing chemicals—salt balance implications. Geoscience Canada, 20(1), 1–8.Google Scholar
  19. James, K.R., Cant, B., Ryan, T. (2003). Responses of freshwater biota to rising salinity levels and implications for saline water management: a review. Australian Journal of Botany, 51(6), 703–713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kaushal, S.S., Groffman, P.M., Likens, G.E., Belt, K.T., Stack, W.P., Kelly, V.R., Band, L.E., Fisher, G.T. (2005). Increased salinization of fresh water in the northeastern United States. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102(38), 13,517–13, 520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kelly, V.R., Lovett, G.M., Weathers, K.C., Findlay, S.E.G., Strayer, D.L., Burns, D.J., Likens, G.E. (2008). Long-term sodium chloride retention in a rural watershed: legacy effects of road salt on streamwater concentration. Environmental Science & Technology, 42(2), 410– 415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kolesar, K.R., Mattson, C.N., Peterson, P.K., May, N.W., Prendergast, R.K., Pratt, K.A. (2018). Increases in wintertime PM2.5 sodium and chloride linked to snowfall and road salt application. Atmospheric Environment, 177(195-202), 195–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Koretsky, C.M., MacLeod, A., Sibert, R.J., Snyder, C. (2012). Redox stratification and salinization of three Kettle lakes in Southwest Michigan, USA. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 223(3), 1415–1427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Löfgren, S. (2001). The chemical effects of deicing salt on soil and stream water of five catchment in Southeast Sweden. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 130(1-4), 863–868.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Manning, R. (1891). On the flow of water in open channels and pipes. Transactions of the Institution of Civil Engineers, 20, 161–207.Google Scholar
  26. Meriano, M., Eyles, N., Howard, K.W.F. (2009). Hydrogeological impacts of road salt from Canada’s busiest highway on a Lake Ontario watershed (Frenchman’s Bay) and Lagoon, City of Pickering. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 107(1–2), 66–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nam, K.H., Kim, Y.J., Moon, Y.S., Pack, I.S., Kim, C.G. (2017). Salinity affects metabolomic profiles of different trophic levels in a food chain. Science of The Total Environment, 599-600(Supplement C), 198–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Novotny, E.V., Murphy, D., Stefan, H.G. (2008). Increase of urban lake salinity by road deicing salt. Science of The Total Environment, 406(1–2), 131–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Novotny, E.V., Sander, A.R., Mohseni, O., Stefan, H.G. (2009). Chloride ion transport and mass balance in a metropolitan area using road salt. Water Resources Research, 45(12), W12,410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Pernes, P. (2003). Hydraulique unidimensionnelle – Partie 1- Analyse dimensionelle et similitudes - Gnralit sur les coulements unidimensionnels – Ecoulements en charge- Ecoulements surfaces libres, cemagref edn.Google Scholar
  31. Powell, R. (1960). History of Manning’s formula. Journal of Geophysical Research, 65, 1310–1311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. R Core Team. (2016). R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. https://www.R-project.org/.
  33. Rhodes, A.L., & Guswa, A.J. (2016). Storage and release of road-salt contamination from a calcareous Lake-Basin Fen, Western Massachusetts, USA. Science of The Total Environment (pp. 525–545).Google Scholar
  34. Setra. (2011). L’impact des fondants routiers sur l’environnement. Etat des connaissances et piste d’action. Note d’information.Google Scholar
  35. Sibert, R.J., Koretsky, C.M., Wyman, D.A. (2015). Cultural meromixis: effects of road salt on the chemical stratification of an urban Kettle lake. Chemical Geology, 395(Supplement C), 126–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Skultety, D., & Matthews, J. (2017). Urbanization and roads drive non-native plant invasion in the Chicago metropolitan region. Biological Invasions, 19(9), 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Suaire, R., Durickovic, I., Simonnot, M.O., Marchetti, M. (2013). Monitoring of road deicers in a retention pond. International Journal of Measurement Technologies and Instrumentation Engineering (IJMTIE), 3(1), 39–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Taffese, W.Z., & Sistonen, E. (2017). Significance of chloride penetration controlling parameters in concrete: ensemble methods. Construction and Building Materials, 139(Supplement C), 9–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cerema Est - Laboratoire de NancyTomblaineFrance
  2. 2.ICube, UMR7357, ENGEES, CNRSUniversité de StrasbourgStrasbourgFrance
  3. 3.Laboratoire Réactions et Génie des Procédés, CNRS, LRGPUniversité de LorraineNancyFrance

Personalised recommendations