Assessment of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Pathways at the Profile of Over-fertilised Alluvial Soils. Implications for Best Management Practices
- 100 Downloads
Contrasting soil profiles (coarse-textured and fine-textured) treated with brilliant blue (BB) dye tracer, inorganic nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations along and between stained preferential flow pathways were examined for an irrigated and overfertilised maize monoculture system at the Mediterranean central Chile. The PO4-P concentrations were 2- to 10-fold higher in areas with BB than in areas without BB below 0.5-m soil depth in both soils. This elevated concentration was attributed to transport through cracks in fine-textured soil and finger flow in coarse-textured soil. The highest PO4-P value (13 mg kg−1) was found in areas with BB at the fine-textured soil. There were no significant differences in inorganic N concentration between areas with and without BB for both soils, which suggest that the effects of preferential flow are less important for inorganic N forms. There was a strong significant (p < 0.01) positive correlation between PO4-P and NH4-N concentrations in the fine-textured soil, and the amounts retained were clearly proportional to the clay content. Strategies for reducing N and P losses must be placed on good agronomic management of irrigated maize cropping system including accurate calculation of N and P fertiliser rates and establishment of suitable mitigation measures such as cover cropping.
KeywordsBrilliant blue Cover crop Preferential flow Over-fertilisation Maize Mediterranean environments
The authors thank the Departamento de Ingeniería y Suelos at the Universidad de Chile and the Cooperativa Campesina Intercomunal Peumo (COOPEUMO) for supporting this study.
This work was partially funded by FONDECYT Grant No 1150572.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Akhtar, M. S., Richards, B. K., Medrano, P. A., deGroot, M., & Steenhuis, T. S. (2003). Dissolved phosphorus from undisturbed soil cores: Related to adsorption strength, flow rate, or soil structure? Soil Science Society of America Journal. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2003.0458.
- Alaoui, A., & Goetz, B. (2008). Dye tracers and infiltration experiments to investigate macropore flow. Geoderma. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2007.11.020.
- Armstrong, A., Quinton, J. N., Francis, B., Heng, B. C. P., & Sander, G. C. (2011). Controls over nutrient dynamics in overland flows on slopes representative of agricultural land in North West Europe. Geoderma. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2011.04.011.
- Clothier, B., Green, S. R., & Deurer, M. (2008). Preferential flow and transport in soil: Progress and prognosis. European Journal of Soil Science. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2389.2007.00991.x.
- Coppola, A., Comegna, A., Dragonetti, G., Gerke, H. H., & Basile, A. (2015). Simulated preferential water flow and solute transport in shrinking soils. Vadose Zone Journal. https://doi.org/10.2136/vzj2015.02.0021.
- Corradini, F., Nájera, F., Casanova, M., Tapia, Y., Singh, R., & Salazar, O. (2015). Effects of maize cultivation on nitrogen and phosphorus loadings to drainage channels in Central Chile. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-015-4919-2.
- Darwish, T., Atallah, T., Francis, R., Saab, C., Joma, I., Shaaban, A., Sakka, H., & Zdruli, P. (2011). Observation on soil and groundwater contamination with nitrate: A case study from Lebanon-East Mediterranean. Agricultural Water Management. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2011.07.016.
- De Jonge, L. W., Moldrup, P., Rubæk, G. H., Schelde, K., & Djurhuus, J. (2004). Particle leaching and particle-facilitated transport of phosphorus at field scale. Vadose Zone Journal. https://doi.org/10.2136/vzj2016.10.0092.
- Delgado, A., Hurtado, M. D., & Andreu, L. (2006). Phosphorus loss in tile drains from a reclaimed marsh soil amended with manure and phosphogypsum. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystem. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10705-005-6240-x.
- Dils, R.M. & Heathwaite, A.L. (1999). Phosphorus transport from diffuse agricultural sources: Shallow subsurface pathways in grassland soils. In: A.L. Heathwaite (Ed.), Proceedings of IUGG 99 symposium HS3: Impact of land-use change on nutrient loads from diffuse sources, July 1999, Birmingham, UK. IAHS Publ. 257, pp: 57–64.Google Scholar
- Elliott, H. A., O'Connor, G. A., & Brinton, S. (2002). Phosphorus leaching from biosolids-amended sandy soils. Journal of Environmental Quality. https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2002.6810.
- FAS (2013). Chile. Grain and feed annual. Corn and wheat annual. Annual global agricultural information network, foreign agricultural services - United States department of agriculture. Published 28 March April 2013.Google Scholar
- FAS (2016). Chile. Grain and Feed. Low Domestic Prices Impact Grain Producers. Annual Global Agricultural Information Network, Foreign agricultural services - United States Department of Agriculture. Published 27 April 2016.Google Scholar
- Fuentes, I., Casanova, M., Seguel, O., Nájera, F., & Salazar, O. (2014). Morphophysical pedotransfer functions for groundwater pollution by nitrate leaching in Central Chile. Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-58392014000300013.
- Fuentes, I., Casanova, M., Seguel, O., Padarian, J., Nájera, F., & Salazar, O. (2015). Preferential flow paths in two alluvial soils with long-term pig slurry additions in the Mediterranean zone in Chile. Soil Research. https://doi.org/10.1071/SR14264.
- Glass, R. J., Oosting, G. H., & Steenhuis, T. S. (1989). Preferential solute transport in layered homogeneous sands as a consequence of wetting front instability. Journal of Environmental Quality. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1694(89)90238-2.
- Golembeski, R. C. (2004). Agricultural practices and nitrate pollution in ground water in the central valley of Chile. Thesis of master of science: University of North Carolina at Wilmington.Google Scholar
- Hendrickx, J. M H., & Flury, M. (2001). Uniform and preferential flow, mechanisms in the vadose zone. In National Research Council. Conceptual models of flow and transport in the fractured vadose zone (pp: 149–187). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
- Honegger, J. A., & Kalita, P. K. (2015). The effects of winter cover cropping on nutrient leaching through repacked soil columns. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting, 4, 4359–4368.Google Scholar
- Jarvis, N. (2007). A review of non-equilibrium water flow and solute transport in soil macropores: Principles, controlling factors and consequences for water quality. European Journal of Soil Science. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2389.2007.00915.x.
- King, K. W., Williams, M. R., Macrae, M. L., Fausey, N. R., Frankenberger, J., Smith, D. R., Kleinman, P. J. A., & Brown, L. C. (2015). Phosphorus transport in agricultural subsurface drainage: A review. Journal of Environmental Quality. https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2014.04.0163.
- Kleinman, P. J. A., Sharpley, A. N., & Dowell, R. A. (2003). Using soil phosphorus profile data to assess phosphorus leaching potential in manured soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2003.2150.
- Koopmans, G. F., Chardon, W. J., & McDowell, R. W. (2007). Phosphorus movement and speciation in a sandy soil profile after long-term animal manure applications. Journal of Environmental Quality. https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2006.0131.
- Kung, K. J. S. (1990). Preferential flow in a sandy vadose zone: 2. Mechanism and implications. Geoderma. https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-7061(90)90007-V.
- Landon, J. R. (2013). Booker tropical soil manual - a handbook for soil survey and agricultural land evaluation in the tropics and subtropics. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Lassaletta, L., Billen, G., Grizzetti, B., Anglade, J., & Garnier, J. (2014). 50 year trends in nitrogen use efficiency of world cropping systems: The relationship between yield and nitrogen input to cropland. Environmental Research Letters. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/9/10/105011.
- Liu, Z., Yang, J., Yang, Z., & Zou, J. (2012). Effects of rainfall and fertilizer types on nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in surface runoff from subtropical tea fields in Zhejiang, China. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10705-012-9517-x.
- Nájera, F., Tapia, Y., Baginsky, C., Figueroa, V., Cabeza, R., & Salazar, O. (2015). Evaluation of soil fertility and fertilisation practices for irrigated maize (Zea mays L.) under Mediterranean conditions in Central Chile. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-95162015005000008.
- Neumann, A., Torstensson, G., & Aronsson, H. (2012). Nitrogen and phosphorus leaching losses from potatoes with different harvest times and following crops. Field Crops Research. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2012.03.011.
- Nielsen, M., Styczen, M., Ernstsen, V., Petersen, C., & Hansen, S. (2010). Field study of preferential flow pathways in and between drain trenches. Vadose Zone Journal. https://doi.org/10.2136/vzj2010.0013.
- Panagopoulos, Y., Makropoulos, C., & Mimikou, M. (2011). Reducing surface water pollution through the assessment of the cost-effectiveness of BMPs at different spatial scales. Journal of Environmental Management. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2011.06.035.
- Pang, L., Lafogler, M., Knorr, B., McGill, E., Saunders, D., Baumann, T., Abraham, P., & Close, M. (2016). Influence of colloids on the attenuation and transport of phosphorus in alluvial gravel aquifer and vadose zone media. Science of the Total Environment. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.01.075.
- Pathak, P., Wani, S. P., & Rao Sudi, R. (2011). Long-term effects of management systems on crop yield and soil physical properties of semi-arid tropics of vertisols. Agricultural Sciences. https://doi.org/10.4236/as.2011.24056.
- Pizarro, J., Vergara, P. M., Rodríguez, J. A., Sanhueza, P. A., & Castro, S. A. (2010). Nutrients dynamics in the main river basins of the Centre southern region of Chile. Journal of Hazardous Materials. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.10.048.
- Pizarro, R., Valdés, R., García-Chevesich, P., Vallejos, C., & 1, Sangüesa, C., Morales, C., Balocchi, F., Abarza, F., & Fuentes, R. (2012). Latitudinal analysis of rainfall intensity and mean annual precipitation in Chile. Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-58392012000200014.
- Quemada, M., Baranski, M., Nobel-de Lange, M. N. J., Vallejo, A., & Cooper, J. M. (2013). Meta-analysis of strategies to control nitrate leaching in irrigated agricultural systems and their effects on crop yield. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2013.04.018.
- Ribbe, L., Delgado, P., Salgado, E., & Flügel, W. A. (2008). Nitrate pollution of surface water induced by agricultural non-point pollution in the Pocochay watershed. Desalination. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2007.01.232.
- Ritsema, C. J., Dekker, L. W., Nieber, J. L., & Steenhuis, T. S. (1998). Modeling and field evidence of finger formation and finger recurrence in a water repellent sandy soil. Water Resources Research. https://doi.org/10.1029/97WR02407.
- Sadzawka, A., Carrasco, M., Grez, R., Mora, M., Flores, H., & Neaman, A. (2006). Methods of analysis recommended for soils of Chile. [In Spanish]. Santiago: Institute of Agricultural Research of Chile.Google Scholar
- Salazar, O., Wesström, I., Youssef, M. A., Skaggs, W. R., & Joel, A. (2009). Evaluation of the DRAINMOD-N II model for prediction nitrogen losses in a loamy sand under cultivation in south-East Sweden. Agricultural Water Management. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2008.08.008.
- Salazar, O., Wesström, I., & Joel, A. (2011). Identification of hydrological factors controlling phosphorus concentration in drainage water in sandy soils. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-95162011000200004.
- Salazar, O., Casanova, M., Vargas, J., Seguel, O., & Najera, F. (2014). Monitoring of nitrate leaching during flush flooding events in a coarse-textured floodplain soil. Agricultural Water Management. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2014.08.014.
- Salazar, O., Rojas, C., Avendaño, F., Realini, P., Nájera, F., & Tapia, Y. (2015). Inorganic nitrogen losses from irrigated maize fields with narrow buffer strips. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10705-015-9707-4.
- Salazar, O., Nájera, F., Tapia, W., & Casanova, M. (2017). Evaluation of the DAISY model for predicting nitrogen leaching in coarse-textured soils cropped with maize in the Mediterranean zone of Chile. Agricultural Water Management. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2016.12.005.
- Sandoval, M., Dörner, J., Seguel, O., Cuevas, J., & Rivera, D. (2012). Methods of soil physical analyses. [In Spanish]. Chile: Universidad de Concepción Chillán.Google Scholar
- Sattari, S. Z., Bouwman, A. F., Giller, K. E., & van Ittersum, M. K. (2012). Residual soil phosphorus as the missing piece in the global phosphorus crisis puzzle. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1113675109.
- Schoeneberger P. J., Wysocki, D. A., & Benham, E. C. (2012). Field book for describing and sampling soils, version 3.0. Natural Resources Conservation Service, National Soil Survey Center. Lincoln, NE, USA.Google Scholar
- Schwen, A., Bodner, G., Scholl, P., Buchan, G. D., & Loiskandl, W. (2011). Temporal dynamics of soil hydraulic properties and the water-conducting porosity under different tillage. Soil and Tillage Research. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2011.02.005.
- Simeonova, T., Stoicheva, D., Koleva, V., Sokołowska, Z., & Hajnos, M. (2017). Effect of long-term fertilizer application in maize crop growing on chemical element leaching in Fluvisol. International Agrophysics. https://doi.org/10.1515/intag-2016-0052.
- Stutter, M. I. (2015). The composition, leaching, and sorption behavior of some alternative sources of phosphorus for soils. Ambio. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-014-0615-7.
- Tapia, F., & Villavicencio, A. (2007). Use of biofilters to improve irrigation water quality. [In Spanish]. Santiago: Institute of Agricultural Research of Chile.Google Scholar
- Teles, A. P. B., Rodrigues, M., Bejarano Herrera, W. F., Soltangheisi, A., Sartor, L. R., Withers, P. J. A., & Pavinato, P. S. (2017). Do cover crops change the lability of phosphorus in a clayey subtropical soil under different phosphate fertilizers? Soil Use and Management, 33, 34–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tomer, M. D., Moorman, T. B., Kovar, J. L., Cole, K. J., & Nichols, D. J. (2016). Eleven years of runoff and phosphorus losses from two fields with and without manure application, Iowa, USA. Agricultural Water Management. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2016.01.011.
- Toor, G. S., & Sims, J. T. (2015). Managing phosphorus leaching in mid-Atlantic soils: Importance of legacy sources. Vadose Zone Journal. https://doi.org/10.2136/vzj2015.08.0108.
- Warsta, L., Karvonen, T., Koivusalo, H., Paasonen-Kivekäs, M., & Taskinen, A. (2013). Simulation of water balance in a clayey, subsurface drained agricultural field with three-dimensional FLUSH model. Journal of Hydrology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2012.10.053.
- Weiler, M., & Flühler, H. (2004). Inferring flow types from dye patterns in macroporous soils. Geoderma. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2003.08.014.
- Weld, J. L., Sharpley, A. N., Beegle, D. B., & Gburek, W. J. (2001). Identifying critical sources of phosphorus export from agricultural watersheds. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009838927800.
- Zeng, C., Wang, Q., Zhang, F., & Zhang, J. (2013). Temporal changes in soil hydraulic conductivity with different soil types and irrigation methods. Geoderma. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2012.10.013.
- Zhang, X., Davidson, E. A., Mauzerall, D. L., Searchinger, T. D., Dumas, P. & Shen, Y. (2015). Managing nitrogen for sustainable development. Nature. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature15743