Washout of Fine Sand Particles From a Ceramic Tile Roof: Laboratory Experiments Under Simulated Rainfall
Roof runoff is an important source of urban stormwater and a main source of rainwater harvesting. Deposition of pollutants on rooftops can have a negative impact on runoff quality and, therefore, on harvested rainwater. Laboratory experiments with simulated rainfall were performed in order to study the washout of fine sand particles deposited on a ceramic tile roof, by runoff, considering the effect of the particle position, particle areal load, particle connectivity and roof slope. Results indicated that particle washout was influenced by the particle position on the roof; particle transport peak and transported mass was higher for the particle mass positions closer to the outlet. Increase in particle areal load decreased particle transport whereas particle connectivity had no effect on particle transport. However, roof slope was a dominant aspect in the particle washout; increase in roof slope greatly increased particle transport peak and transported mass. It also remarkably increased the first flush effect.
KeywordsRoof runoff Particle washout Ceramic tile roof Laboratory study
The first author acknowledges CNPq, Brazil, for the financial support through the Post-Doctoral Grant 206872/2014-3. Acknowledgements are due to FCT, Portugal, for the financial support through the Project HIRT (PTDC/ECM-HID/4259/2014–POCI-01-0145-FEDER-016668) coordinated by the second author and the Doctoral Grant SFRH/BD/103300/2014 of the third author.
- Barlow, C., Bendell, L. I., Duckham, C., Faugeroux, D., & Koo, V. (2014). Three-dimensional profiling reveals trace metal depositional patterns in sediments of urban aquatic environments: a case study in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 225, 1856.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Christiansen, J. E. (1942). Irrigation by sprinkling. California Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 670. Berkeley: University of California.Google Scholar
- ETA 0701. (2012). Sistemas de Aproveitamento de Águas Pluviais em Edifícios. Lisbon: Associação Nacional para a Qualidade nas Instalações Prediais.Google Scholar
- Geiger, W. (1987). Flushing effects in combined sewer systems. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Urban Drainage, Lausanne, Switzerland.Google Scholar
- Ma, J. S, Khan, S., Li, Y., Kim, L. H., Ha, S., & Lau, S. L. (2002). First flush phenomena for highways: how it can be meaningfully defined. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Urban Drainage. Portland, OR, USA.Google Scholar
- NBR 15227. (2007). Água de Chuva: Aproveitamento de Coberturas em Áreas Urbanas para Fins Não Potáveis. São Paulo, SP, Brazil.Google Scholar
- Pérez, C., Haustein, K., Janjic, Z., Jorba, O., Huneeus, N., Baldasano, J. M., Black, T., Basart, S., Nickovic, S., Miller, R. L., Perlwitz, J. P., Schulz, M., & Thomson, M. (2011). Atmospheric dust modeling from meso to global scales with the online NMMB/BSC-Dust model—part 1: model description, annual simulations and evaluation. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 11(24), 13001–13027.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Shen, J. (1965). Use of analog models in the analysis of flood runoff. In Geological Survey Professional Paper 506-A. Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
- Silveira, A., de Lima, J. L. M. P., Dinis, C., Abrantes, J. R. C. B. (2017). Chuva de baixa intensidade em telhados cerâmicos pode não gerar escoamento suficiente para o aproveitamento de água da chuva? Revista Engenharia Sanitária e Ambiental (in press).Google Scholar