Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

High Time-Resolution Monitoring of Free-Tropospheric Sulfur Dioxide and Nitric Acid at the Summit of Mt. Fuji, Japan

  • 160 Accesses

Abstract

This is the first paper that describes the atmospheric sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitric acid (HNO3) monitored with a good time-resolution at the summit (3776 m a.s.l.), which is located in the free troposphere, and southeastern foot (1284 m a.s.l.) of Mt. Fuji. Japan. During the summer of 2012, two analytical systems consisting mainly of a parallel-plate wet denuder and ion chromatograph operated simultaneously at both the sampling sites. All the samples collected at both the sampling sites contained detectable levels of sulfate from gas-phase SO2 while the nitrate from gas-phase HNO3 was detectable in 97.8% of air samples at the southeastern foot and 88.4% at the summit. The average concentrations of SO2 and HNO3 were, respectively, 0.061 ± 0.071 and 0.031 ± 0.020 ppbv at the summit (n = 672), and 0.347 ± 0.425 and 0.146 ± 0.070 ppbv at the southeastern foot (n = 1344) of Mt. Fuji. Both the acidic gases at the southeastern foot and the HNO3 at the summit showed a diurnal pattern with daytime maxima and nighttime minima. Meanwhile, the SO2 at the summit did not show a distinct shift, which indicates the SO2 concentrations at the summit would be principally controlled by the advection of air parcel in the free troposphere.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

References

  1. Benner, C. L., Eatough, D. J., Eatough, N. L., & Bhardwaja, P. (1991). Comparison of annular denuder and filter pack collection of HNO3(g), HNO2(g), SO2(g), and particulate-phase nitrate nitrite, and sulfate in the south-west desert. Atmospheric Environment, 25A, 1537–1545.

  2. Boring, C. B., Al-Horr, R., Genfa, Z., Dasgupta, P. K., Martin, M. W., & Smith, W. F. (2002). Field measurement of acid gases and soluble anions in atmospheric particulate matter using a parallel plate wet denuder and an alternating filter-based automated analysis system. Analytical Chemistry, 74, 1256–1268.

  3. Diehl, T., Heil, A., Chin, M., Pan, X., Streets, D., Schultz, M., & Kinne, S. (2012). Anthropogenic, biomass burning, and volcanic emissions of black carbon, organic carbon, and SO2 from 1980 to 2010 for hindcast model experiments. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 12, 24895–24954.

  4. Dokiya, Y., Tsuboi, K., Sekino, H., Hosomi, T., Igarashi, Y., & Tanaka, S. (1995). Acid deposition at the summit of Mt. Fuji: observations of gases, aerosols and precipitation in summer, 1993 and 1994. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 85, 1967–1972.

  5. Garg, A., Shukla, P. R., Bhattacharya, S., & Dadhwal, V. K. (2001). Sub-region (district) and sector level SO2 and NOx emissions for India: assessment of inventories and mitigation flexibility. Atmospheric Environment, 35, 703–713.

  6. Harrison, R. M., & Allen, A. G. (1990). Measurements of atmospheric HNO3, HCl and associated species on a small network in eastern England. Atmospheric Environment, 24A, 369–376.

  7. Igarashi, Y. (2009). Aerosol research using Mt. Fuji and its challenges. Earozoru Kenkyu, 24, 90–96 (in Japanese).

  8. Igarashi, Y., Naoe, H., Takahashi, H., & Inomata, Y. (2010). Observation of atmospheric chemistry by using mountains, research trends and its challenges-a mini review. Low Temperature Science, 68, 69–78 (in Japansese).

  9. Igarashi, Y., Sawa, Y., Yoshioka, K., Matsueda, H., Fujii, K., & Dokiya, Y. (2004). Monitoring the SO2 concentration at the summit of Mt. Fuji and a comparison with other trace gases during winter. Journal of Geophysical Research, 109, D17304.

  10. Igawa, M., Tsutsumi, Y., Mori, T., & Okochi, H. (1998). Fogwater chemistry at a mountainside forest and the estimation of the air pollutant deposition via fog droplets based on the atmospheric quality at the mountain base. Environmental Science and Technology, 32, 1566–1572.

  11. Jurkat, T., Voigt, C., Arnold, F., Schlager, H., Aufmhoff, H., Schmale, J., Schneider, J., Lichtenstern, M., & Dörnbrack, A. (2010). Airborne stratospheric ITCIMS measurements of SO2, HCl, and HNO3 in the aged plume of volcano Kasatochi. Journal of Geophysical Research, 115, D00L17.

  12. Kasper, A., & Puxbaum, H. (1998). Seasonal variation of SO2, HNO3, NH3 and selected aerosol components at Sonnblick (3106 m a.S.L.) Atmospheric Environment, 32, 3925–3939.

  13. Kato, S., Shiobara, Y., Uchiyama, K., Miura, K., Okochi, H., Kobayashi, H., & Hatekeyama, S. (2016). Atmospheric CO, O3, and SO2 measurements at the summit of Mt. Fuji during the summer of 2013. Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 16, 2368–2377.

  14. Keuken, M. P., Schoonebeek, C. A. M., Wensveen-Louter, A., & Slanina, J. (1988). Simultaneous sampling of NH3, HNO3, HCl, SO2 and H2O2 in ambient air by a wet annular denuder system. Atmospheric Environment, 22, 2541–2548.

  15. Khoder, M. I. (2002). Atmospheric conversion of sulfur dioxide to particulate sulfate and nitrogen dioxide to particulate nitrate and gaseous nitric acid in an urban area. Chemosphere, 49, 675–684.

  16. Kitto, A.-M. N., & Harrison, R. M. (1992). Nitrous and nitric acid measurements at sites in south-east England. Atmospheric Environment, 26A, 235–241.

  17. Kadowaki, S. (1986). On the nature of atmospheric oxidation processes of sulfur dioxide to sulfate and of nitrogen dioxide to nitrate on the basis of diurnal variations of sulfate, nitrate, and other pollutants in an urban area. Environmental Science and Technology, 20, 1249–1253.

  18. Mori, T., Notsu, K., Tohjima, Y., & Wakita, H. (1993). Remote detection of HCl and SO2 in volcanic gas from Unzen volcano, Japan. Geophysical Research Letters, 20, 1355–1358.

  19. Murosaki, M., Fujita, S.-I., Takahashi, A., Hayami, H., & Miura, K. (2006). Measurements of ozone vertical distribution at Mt. Fuji using a passive sampler. Journal of Japan Society for Atmospheric Environment, 41, 347–354 (in Japanese).

  20. Nakazawa, T., Aoki, S., Fukabori, M., & Tanaka, M. (1984). The concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide on the summit of Mt. Fuji (3776 m), Japan. Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan, 62, 688–695.

  21. Preunkert, S., Legrand, M., Jourdain, B., & Dombrowski-Etchevers, I. (2007). Acidic gases (HCOOH, CH3COOH, HNO3, HCl, and SO2) and related aerosol species at a high mountain Alpine site (4360 m elevation) in Europe. Journal of Geophysical Research, 112, D23S12.

  22. Sadanaga, Y., Kondo, S., Hashimoto, K., & Kajii, Y. (2006). Measurement of the rate coefficient for the OH + NO2 reaction under the atmospheric pressure: its humidity dependence. Chemical Physics Letters, 419, 474–478.

  23. Seinfeld, J. H., & Pandis, S. N. (1998). Atmospheric chemistry and physics: from air pollution to climate change. New York: Wiley-Interscience Publication.

  24. Streets, D. G., & Waldhoff, S. T. (2000). Present and future emissions of air pollutants in China: SO2, NOx, and CO. Atmospheric Environment, 34, 363–374.

  25. Takeuchi, M., Li, J., Morris, K. J., & Dasgupta, P. K. (2004). Membrane-based parallel plate denuder for the collection and removal of soluble atmospheric gases. Analytical Chemistry, 76, 1204–1210.

  26. Takeuchi, M., Miyazaki, Y., Tsunoda, H., & Tanaka, H. (2013). Atmospheric acid gases in Tokushima, Japan, monitored with parallel plate wet denuder coupled ion chromatograph. Analytical Sciences, 29, 165–168.

  27. Takeuchi, M., Okochi, H., & Igawa, M. (2000). A study on chemical components and acidification mechanism of dew-water. Journal of Japan Society for Atmospheric Environment, 35, 158–169 (in Japanese).

  28. Takeuchi, M., Tsunoda, H., Tanaka, H., & Shiramizu, Y. (2011). Parallel-plate wet denuder coupled ion chromatograph for near-real-time detection of trace acidic gases in clean room air. Analytical Sciences, 27, 805–810.

  29. Tanaka, S., & Hashimoto, Y. (1977). Studies on behaviors of sulfur compounds (SO2, SO3, and H2S) in the atmospheric air. Nippon Kagaku Kaishi, 5, 712–715 (in Japansese).

  30. Ullah, S. M. R., Takeuchi, M., & Dasgupta, P. K. (2006). Versatile gas/particle ion chromatograph. Environmental Science Technology, 40, 962–968.

  31. Yokota, K., Nagahuchi, O., Yamane, S., Honda, A., & Isezaki, U. (2009). Vertical distribution of gaseous in environmental atmosphere at Mt. Fuji using passive sampler. Journal of Ecotechnology Research, 15, 31–36.

  32. Wang, C., Tu, Y., Yu, Z., & Lu, R. (2015). PM2.5 and cardiovascular diseases in the elderly: an overview. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 12, 8187–8197.

  33. Xing, Y., Xu, Y., Shi, M., & Lian, Y. (2016). The impact of PM2.5 on the human respiratory system. Journal of Thoracic Disease, 8, E69–E74.

  34. Zhang, X., & McMurry, P. H. (1991). Theoretical analysis of evaporative losses of adsorbed or absorbed species during atmospheric aerosol sampling. Environmental Science and Technology, 25, 456–459.

  35. Zhang, X., & McMurry, P. H. (1992). Evaporative losses of fine particulate nitrates during sampling. Atmospheric Environment, 26A, 3305–3312.

Download references

Acknowledgements

This study was performed during the period in which the NPO “Valid Utilization of Mt. Fuji Weather Station” maintained the facilities, and partly supported by the Waseda University Grant for Special Research Projects A (2011A-608), the financial support of Japan Post Service Co., Ltd. in 2012, and the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research(C) (26340006) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.

Author information

Correspondence to Masaki Takeuchi.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Takeuchi, M., Miyazaki, Y., Tanaka, H. et al. High Time-Resolution Monitoring of Free-Tropospheric Sulfur Dioxide and Nitric Acid at the Summit of Mt. Fuji, Japan. Water Air Soil Pollut 228, 325 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-017-3514-2

Download citation

Keywords

  • Sulfur dioxide
  • Nitric acid
  • Mt. Fuji
  • Denuder
  • Ion chromatograph
  • On-site analysis
  • Free troposphere