Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Application of Green Manure and Pig Manure to Cd-Contaminated Paddy Soil Increases the Risk of Cd Uptake by Rice and Cd Downward Migration into Groundwater: Field Micro-Plot Trials

  • 566 Accesses

  • 4 Citations

Abstract

Land application of organic manure, crop residue, and biosolid, an important means for the disposal and recycling of wastes, has been shown to significantly increase the amount of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in soil. However, limited information is available on the dynamics of DOM, the concentration is usually expressed by dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and its influence on Cd behaviors in paddy soil amended with and without organic materials during rice (kinmaze) growing season. In this study, in situ field experiments were conducted to investigate the dynamics of DOC in paddy soil amended with green manure (GM), pig manure (PM), and chemical fertilizer (F) and its effect on Cd mobility and bioavailability. The results showed that DOC concentrations in soil solutions extracted from different depths were higher in GM and PM plots than those in F plot, and DOC concentrations all declined with time and rice growth. DOC concentrations in the root zone soil for all treatments were higher than those in the non-root zone due to root exudation and the higher pH value. The temporal dynamics of DOC in the root zone were found to be correlated to rice growth stage, as DOC concentrations decreased in the initial stage (week 1 to 6) of rice seedling and then gradually increased and reached the highest levels with 30.42 mg DOC L−1 for GM, 28.88 mg DOC L−1 for PM, and 19.19 mg DOC L−1 for F at rice heading and flowering stage (week 10), hereafter decreased again until when the rice was harvested. However, soil DOC in the non-root zone exhibited a continuous decrease trend and remained at a relatively low level after week 10 with 15.36 mg DOC L−1 for GM, 15.31 mg DOC L−1 for PM, and 8.43 mg DOC L−1 for F. The dynamics of water soluble Cd displayed statistically significant positive relationship with DOC (r 0.01 = 0.765, n = 9) regardless of soil depth and root presence/absence, suggesting that DOC enhanced the mobility and transport of through the formation of Cd-DOC complexes. As a result, DOC could increase the potential uptake of Cd by rice as well as the downward Cd migration to deeper soil. In these experiments, the uptake of Cd by rice grown in the GM and PM plots reached 5.55 and 3.71 mg plot−1, respectively, which were much higher than that in the F plot with 1.88 mg plot−1. The amounts of Cd downward migration were 17.0 mg plot−1 for GM plot, 14.74 mg plot−1 for PM plot, and 4.13 mg plot−1 for F plot, respectively. It could be concluded that the application of green manure and pig manure to Cd-contaminated paddy soil will increase the risk of Cd uptake by rice and Cd downward migration into groundwater. For this reason, care should be taken when organic manures was applied to contaminated soil to remediate or alleviate soil pollution and maintain soil fertility as well as provide nutrients for plant growth.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5

References

  1. Baham, J., & Sposito, G. (1983). Chemistry of water-soluble, metal-complexing ligands extracted from an anaerobically digested sewage sludge. Jounal of Environmental Quality, 12, 96–100.

  2. Bang, J., & Hesterberg, D. (2004). Dissolution of trace element contaminants from two coastal plain soils as affected by pH. Jounal of Environmental Quality, 33, 891–901.

  3. Beesley, L., Moreno-Jiménez, E., & Gomez-Eyles, J. L. (2010). Effects of biochar and greenwaste compost amendments on mobility, bioavailability and toxicity of inorganic and organic contaminants in a multi-element polluted soil. Environment Pollutio., 158, 2282–2287.

  4. Bolan, N., Kunhikrishnan, A., Thangarajan, R., Kumpiene, J., Park, J., Makino, T., Kirkham, M. B., & Scheckel, K. (2014). Remediation of heavy metal(loid)s contaminated soils—to mobilize or to immobilize? Jounal of Hazardous Mateials, 266, 141–166.

  5. Bremner, J.M. (1996). Nitrogen. In Sparks, D.L. (ed.), Methods of soil analysis (pp. 1103–1108). Part 3. SSSA Book Ser. 5. SSSA, Madison, WI.

  6. Cambier, P., Pot, V., Mercier, V., Michaud, A., Benoit, P., Revallier, A., & Houot, S. (2014). Impact of long-term organic residue recycling in agriculture on soil solution composition and trace metal leaching in soils. Science of the Total Environment, 499, 560–573.

  7. Chen, H. L., Zhou, J. M., & Xiao, B. H. (2010). Characterization of dissolved organic matter derived from rice straw at different stages of decay. Jounal of Soils and Sediments, 10, 915–922.

  8. Clemente, R., Paredes, C., & Bernal, M. P. (2007). A field experiment investigating the effects of olive husk and cow manure on heavy metal availability in a contaminated calcareous soil from Murcia (Spain). Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment, 118, 319–326.

  9. David, H., Laurent, E., & Philippe, S. (2013). Mobility, bioavailability and pH-dependent leaching of cadmium, zinc and lead in a contaminated soil amended with biochar. Chemosphere, 92, 1450–1457.

  10. Du, Y., Hu, X., Wu, X., Shu, Y., Jiang, Y., & Yan, X. (2013). Effects of mining activities on Cd pollution to paddy soils and rice grain in Hunan province, Central South China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 185, 9843–9856.

  11. Du, L. G., Rinklebe, J., Vandecasteele, B., Meers, E., & Tack, F. M. G. (2009). Heavy metal mobility and availability in estuarine and riverine floodplain soils and sediments: a review. Science of the Total Environment, 407, 3972–3985.

  12. Dudka, S., & Miller, W. P. (1999). Accumulation of potentially toxic elements in plants and their transfer to human food chain. Journal of Environmental Science & Health, 34(4), 681–708.

  13. Dutta, S., Inamdar, S., Tso, J., Aga, D. S., & Sims, J. T. (2012). Dissolved organic carbon and estrogen transport in surface runoff from agricultural land receiving poultry litter. Journal of the America Water Resourources Association, 2, 1–12.

  14. Fang, Y., Sun, X., Yang, W., & Xin, Z. (2014). Concentrations and health risks of lead, cadimium, arsenic, and mercury in rice and edible mushrooms in China. Food Chemistry, 147, 147–151.

  15. Fulda, B., Voegelin, A., & Kretzschmar, R. (2013). Redox-controlled changes in cadmium solubility and solid-phase speciation in a paddy soil as affected by reducible sulfate and copper. Environmental Science & Technology, 47, 12775–12783.

  16. Gerritse, R. G. (1996). Column- and catchment-scale transport of cadmium: effect of dissolved organic matter. Contaminant Hydrology, 22, 145–163.

  17. Ghosh, U., Luthy, R. G., & Cornelissen, G. (2011). In-situ sorbent amendments: a new direction in contaminated sediment management. Environmental Science & Technology, 45(4), 1163–1168.

  18. Han, N. Z., & Thompson, M. L. (1999). Copper-binding ability of dissolved organic matter derived from anaerobically digested biosolids. Jounal of Environmental Quality, 28, 939–944.

  19. Hartley, W., Edwards, R., & Lepp, N. W. (2004). Arsenic and heavy metal mobility in iron oxide-amended contaminated soils as evaluated by short- and long-term leaching tests. Environmental Pollution, 131, 495–504.

  20. Hassouna, M., massiani, C., Dudal, Y., Pech, N., Theraulaz, F. (2010). Changes in water extractable organic matter (WEOM) in a calcareous soil under field conditions with time and soil depth. Geoderma, 155, 75–85.

  21. Homann, P. S., & Grigal, D. F. (1992). Molecular weight distribution of soluble organics from laboratory-manipulated surface soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 56, 1305–1310.

  22. Houben, D., Evrard, L., & Sonnet, P. (2013). Mobility, bioavailability and pH-dependent leaching of cadmium, zinc and lead in a contaminated soil amended with biochar. Chemosphere, 92, 1450–1457.

  23. Hu, K. W., & Guan, L. Z. (2007). Research advances on amendment in-site immobilization in soil contaminated by heavy metals. Soil and Fertilizer Sciences in China, 4, 1–5.

  24. Huang, J. H., Hsu, S. H., & Wang, S. L. (2011). Effects of rice straw ash amendment on Cu solubility and distribution in flooded rice paddy soils. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 186, 1801–1807.

  25. Huang, Z., Pan, X., Wu, P., Han, J., & Chen, Q. (2014). Heavy metals in vegetables and the health risk to population in Zhejiang, China. Food Control, 36, 248–252.

  26. Impellitteri, C. A., Lu, Y. F., Saxe, J. K., Allen, H. E., & Peijnenburg, W. J. G. M. (2002). Correlation of the partitioning of dissolved organic matter fractions with the desorption of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn from 18 Dutch soils. Environment International, 28, 401–410.

  27. Jones, D. L. (1998). Organic acids in the rhizosphere—a critical review. Plant and Soil, 205, 25–44.

  28. Kalbitz, K., Solinger, S., Park, J. H., Michalzik, B., & Matener, E. (2000). Controls on the dynamics of dissolved organic matter in soils: a review. Soil Science, 165(4), 277–304.

  29. Karlsson, T., Elgh-Dalgren, K., Björn, E., & Skyllberg, U. (2007). Complexation of cadmium to sulphur and oxygen functional groups in an organic soil. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 71, 604–614.

  30. Khokhotva, O., & Waara, S. (2010). The influence of dissolved organic carbon on sorption of heavy metals on urea-treated pine bark. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 173, 689–696.

  31. Kogel-Knabner, I., Amelung, W., Cao, Z. H., Fiedler, S., Frenzel, P., Jahn, R., Kalbitz, K., Kolbl, A., & Schloter, M. (2010). Biochemistry of paddy soils. Geoderma, 157, 1–14.

  32. Kuo, S. (1996). Phosphorus. In Sparks, D.L. (ed.), Methods of soil analysis (pp. 908–910). Part 3. SSSA Book Ser. 5. SSSA, Madison, WI.

  33. Kuo, S., Lai, M. S., & Lin, C. W. (2006). Influence of solution acidity and CaCl2 concentration on the removal of heavy metals from metal-contaminated rice soils. Environmental Pollution, 144, 918–925.

  34. Laborte, A. G., de Bie, K., Smaling, E. M. A., Moya, P. F., Boling, A. A., & Van Ittersum, M. K. (2012). Rice yield and yield gaps in Southeast Asia: past trends and future outlook. European Journal of Agronomy, 36, 9–20.

  35. Lamy, I. (1993). Soil cadmium mobility as a consequence of sewage sludge disposal. Journal of Environmental Quality, 22, 731–737.

  36. Lee, T., Lai, H., & Chen, Z. (2004). Effect of chemical amendments on the concentration of cadmium and lead in long-term contaminated soil. Chemosphere, 57, 1459–1471.

  37. Leenheer, J. A. (1981). Comprehensive approach to preparative isolation and fractionation of dissolved organic carbon from natural waters and wastewaters. Environmental Science & Technology, 15, 578–587.

  38. Lei, M., Zhang, Y., Khan, S., Qin, P. F., & Liao, B. H. (2010). Pollution, fractionation, and mobility of Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn in garden and paddy soils from a Pb/Zn mining area. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 168, 215–222.

  39. Li, T. Q., Tao, Q., Liang, C. F., Shohag, M. J. I., Yang, X. E., & Sparks, D. (2013). Complexation with dissolved organic matter and mobility control of heavy metals in the rhizosphere of hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii. Environmental Pollution, 182, 248–255.

  40. Li, L., Wu, H., van Gestel, C. A., Peijnenburg, W. J., & Allen, H. E. (2014). Soil acidification increases metal extractability and bioavailability in old orchard soils of Northeast Jiaodong Peninsula in China. Environmental Pollution, 188, 144–152.

  41. Liu, H. Y., Probst, A., & Liao, B. H. (2005a). Metal contamination of soils and crops affected by the Chenzhou lead/zinc mine spill (Hunan, China). Science of the Total Environment, 339, 153–166.

  42. Liu, J. G., Zhu, Q. S., Zhan, Z. J., Xu, J. K., Yang, J. C., & Wong, M. H. (2005b). Variations in cadmium accumulation among rice cultivars and types and the selection of cultivars for reducing cadmium in the diet. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 85(1), 147–153.

  43. Lu, Y. H., Wassmann, R., Neue, H. U., & Huang, C. Y. (2000a). Dynamics of dissolved organic carbon and methane emissions in a flooded rice soil. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 64, 2011–2017.

  44. Lu, Y. H., Wassmann, R., Neue, H. U., & Huang, C. Y. (2000b). Dissolved organic carbon and methane emissions from a rice paddy fertilized with ammonium and nitrate. Journal of Envrionmental Quality, 29, 1733–1740.

  45. Mahar, A., Wang, P., Li, R. H., & Zhang, Z. Q. (2015). Immobilization of lead and cadmium in contaminated soil using amendments: a review. Pedosphere, 25(4), 555–568.

  46. McCarthy, J. F., Williams, T. M., & Liang, L. Y. (1993). Mobility of natural organic matter in a sandy aquifer. Environmental Science & Technology, 27, 667–676.

  47. McCarthy, J. F., & Zachara, J. M. (1989). Subsurface transport of contaminants. Environmental Science and Technology, 23, 496–502.

  48. McLaughlin, M.J., Singh, B.R. (1999). Cadmium in soils and plants. Developments in Plant and Soil Sciences (pp.85). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  49. Meharg, A. A., Norton, G., Deacon, C., Williams, P., Adomako, E. E., Price, A., Zhu, Y. G., Li, G., Zhao, F. J., McGrath, S., Villada, A., Sommella, A., De Silva, P. M. C. S., Brammer, H., Dasgupta, T., & Islam, M. R. (2013). Variation in rice cadmium related to human exposure. Environmental Science & Technology, 47, 5613–5618.

  50. Naden, P. S., Old, G. H., Eliot-Laize, C., Hawkins, J. M. B., Bol, R., & Haygarth, P. (2010). Assessment of natural fluorescence as a trace of diffuse agricultural pollutions from slurry spreading on intensely-farmed grasslands. Water Research, 44, 1701–1702.

  51. Nelson, D.W., Sommers, L.E. (1996). Total carbon, organic carbon, and organic matter. In Sparks, D.L. (ed.), Methods of soil analysis (pp.961-1010). Part 3. SSSA Book Ser. 5. SSSA, Madison, WI.

  52. Newman, M. E., Elzerman, A. W., & Looney, B. B. (1993). Facilitated transport of selected metals in aquifer material packed columns. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 14, 233–246.

  53. Niu, L., Yang, F., Xu, C., Yang, H., & Liu, W. (2013). Status of metal accumulation in farm-land soils across China: from distribution to risk assessment. Environmental Pollution, 176, 55–62.

  54. Nour, H., Mikael, M. H., Olivier, F., & Bouchardon, J. L. (2015). Effect of fresh and mature organic amendments on the phytoremediation of technosols contaminated with high concentrations of trace elements. Journal of Environmental Management, 159, 37–47.

  55. Old, G. H., Naden, P. S., Granger, S. J., Bilotte, G. S., Bazier, R. E., Macleod, C. J. A., Krueger, T., Bol, R., Hawkins, J. M. B., Haygarth, P., & Freer, I. (2012). A novel application of natural fluorescence to understand the sources and transport pathways of pollutants from livestock farming in small headwater catchments. Science of the Total Environment, 417–418, 169–182.

  56. Pan, Y. Y., Bonten, L. T. C., Koopmans, G. F., Song, J., Luo, Y. M., Temminghoff, E. J. M., & Comans, R. N. J. (2016). Solubility of trace metals in two contaminated paddy soils exposed to alternating flooding and drainage. Geoderma, 261, 59–69.

  57. Qian, Y. Z., Chen, C., Zhang, Q., Li, Y., Chen, Z. J., & Li, M. (2010). Concentrations of cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in Chinese market milled rice and associated population health risk. Food Control, 21(12), 1757–1763.

  58. Rafiq, M. T., Aziz, R., Yang, X. E., Xiao, W. D., Rafiq, M. K., Ali, B., & Li, T. Q. (2014). Cadmium phytoavailability to rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown in representative Chinese soils. A model to improve soil environmental quality guidelines for food safety. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 103, 101–107.

  59. Ramadan, M. A. E., & Al-Ashkar, E. A. (2007). The effect of different fertilizers on the heavy metals in soil and tomato plant. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 1, 300–306.

  60. Rinkleba J., Shaheen, S.M., Yu, K.W. (2015). Release of As, Ba, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Sr under pre-definite redox conditions in different rice paddy soils originating from the U.S.A. and Asia. Geoderma. http:// dx.doi.org /10.1016 / j.geoderma.2015.10.011.

  61. Sukreeyapongse, O., Holme, P. E., Strobel, B. W., Panichsakpatana, S., Magid, J., & Hansen, H. C. B. (2002). pH-dependent release of cadmium, copper, and lead from natural and sludge-amended soils. Journal of Environmental Quality, 31, 1901–1909.

  62. Sumner, M.E., Miller, W.P. (1996). Cation exchange capacity and exchange coefficients.. In Sparks, D.L. (ed.), Methods of soil analysis (pp. 1220–1221). Part 3. SSSA Book Ser. 5. SSSA, Madison, WI.

  63. Temminghoff, E. J. M., Zee, S., & Haan, F. (1997). Copper mobility in a copper-contaminated sandy soil as affected by pH and solid and dissolved organic matter. Environmental Science & Technology, 31, 1109–1115.

  64. Tipping, E., & Hurley, M. (1992). A unifying model of cation binding by humic substance. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 56, 3627–3641.

  65. Wang, M. E., Chen, W. P., & Peng, C. (2016). Risk assessment of Cd polluted paddy soils in the industrial and township areas in Hunan, Southern China. Chemosphere, 144, 346–351.

  66. Wang, W., Lai, D. Y. F., Wang, C., Pan, T., & Zeng, C. (2015). Effects of rice straw incorporation on active soil organic carbon pools in a subtropical paddy field. Soil and Tillage Research, 152, 8–16.

  67. Warrner, T. J., Royer, T. V., Tank, J. L., Griffiths, N. A., Rosi-Marshall, E. J., & Whiles, M. R. (2009). Dissolved organic carbon in streams from artificially drained and intensively farmed watershed in Indiana, USA. Biogeochemistry, 95, 295–307.

  68. Weng, L. P., Temminghoff, E. J. M., & van Riemsdijik, W. H. (2001). Contribution of individual sorhents to the control of heavy metal activity in sandy soil. Environmental Science & Technology, 35, 4436–4443.

  69. Xian, X. F., & Shokohifard, G. I. (1989). Effect of pH on chemical forms and plant availability of cadmium, zinc, and lead in polluted soils. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 45, 265–273.

  70. Yeung, A. T., & Hsu, C. N. (2005). Electrokinetic remediation of cadmium contaminated clay. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 131(2), 298–304.

  71. Zhang, M., He, Z., Zhao, A., Zhang, H., Endale, D., & Schomberg, H. H. (2011). Water-extractable organic carbon and nitrogen affected by tillage and manure application. Soil Science, 176, 307–312.

  72. Zhao, K. L., Zhang, W. W., Zhou, L., Liu, X. M., Xu, J. M., & Huang, P. M. (2009). Modeling transfer of heavy metals in soil-rice system and their risk assessment in paddy fields. Environmental Earth Sciences, 59(3), 519–527.

  73. Zhou, L. X., & Wong, J. W. C. (2001). Effect of dissolved organic matters derived from sludge and composted sludge on soil Cu sorption. Journal of Environmental Quality, 30, 878–883.

  74. Zhou, L. X., & Wong, J. W. C. (2003). Behavior of heavy metals in soil: effect of dissolved organic matter. In M. Selim & W. L. Kingery (Eds.), Geochemical and hydrological reactivity of heavy metals in soils (pp. 245–270). Boca Raton, F.L.: CRC Press.

  75. Zhou, L. X., Zhou, S. G., & Zhan, X. H. (2004). Sorption and biodegradability of sludge bacterial extracellular polymers in soil and their influence on soil Cu behavior. Journal of Environmenta Quality, 33, 154–162.

  76. Zsolnay, A., & Gorlitz, H. (1994). Water extractable organic matter in arable soils: effects of drought and long-term fertilization. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 26, 1257–1261.

Download references

Acknowledgements

The study was carried out with the support of the “National Natural Scientific Foundation of China (Project No. 21637003, 31200472).” We thank Dr. He Feng, Li Zhaoli, and Fang Di for their assistance in running the experiment.

Author information

Correspondence to Lixiang Zhou.

Additional information

An erratum to this article is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11270-017-3346-0.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Wang, G., Zhou, L. Application of Green Manure and Pig Manure to Cd-Contaminated Paddy Soil Increases the Risk of Cd Uptake by Rice and Cd Downward Migration into Groundwater: Field Micro-Plot Trials. Water Air Soil Pollut 228, 29 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-016-3207-2

Download citation

Keywords

  • Organic manures
  • Cd-contaminated paddy soil
  • DOC
  • Uptake
  • Downward migration