Synergy Between Diazinon and Nonylphenol in Toxicity During the Early Development of the Rhinella arenarum Toad
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Diazinon is an extensively applied organophosphate pesticide, and nonylphenol is one of the major degradation products of nonylphenol polyethoxylates which are commonly used as surfactant in pesticide formulations. Both pollutants are widely distributed and often coexist in agroecosystems, where they might cause toxic effects to wild biota. This study assessed single and joint toxicity of binary mixtures of these organic compounds on the early development of Rhinella arenarum by means of a standardized test. Joint toxicity of diazinon/nonylphenol mixtures were assessed in embryos and larvae exposed to three different proportions at different exposure times. Embryo and larval toxicity was time-dependent, and larvae were significantly more sensitive than embryos to both compounds. For both embryos and larvae, nonylphenol was between 11 and 18 times more toxic than diazinon. Joint toxicity of the chemicals showed a tendency to be significantly higher than the predicted by additivity effects highlighting the threat that diazinon/nonylphenol mixtures represent for Rhinella arenarum populations.
KeywordsAmphibians Diazinon Joint toxicity Nonylphenol Synergism
Cristina S. Pérez Coll, Carolina Aronzon, and Gabriela Svartz are members of the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Argentina, and Universidad Nacional de San Martín (UNSAM), Argentina. We are grateful to Paola Babay and Damián Marino for their valuable help in the analysis and quantification of nonylphenol and diazinon test solutions.
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