Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Heavy Metal Occurrence in Bed Sediments of a Temporary River
- 315 Downloads
The directive 2008/105/EC suggests the use of sediment or biota matrix for long-term monitoring of specific priority pollutants that tend to accumulate. But, the intermittent nature of flow in the majority of the Mediterranean rivers results in large variability of biological communities and especially fish, making advantageous the examination of pollution trend in sediment matrix and not in living organisms (biota). In this study, sediment environmental quality standards (EQSs) and sediment quality indicators (SQIs) were used to assess pollution by heavy metals (cadmium, nickel, lead, mercury, arsenic, chromium, copper, and zinc) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Evrotas River, South Greece, monitored seasonally for 2 years (2009–2010) in five sampling sites. The results showed that, based on SQIs (geoaccumulation index (Igeo), enrichment factor (EF), and modified degree of contamination (mCd)), sediments of the Evrotas River can be classified as “low polluted,” with some exceptions of “extreme pollution.” EQS assessment revealed heavy metal pollution ranging from “low” to “medium high.” Furthermore, based on the Hakanson’s ecological risk index (RI) method, heavy metal potential risk was classified from “low” to “extreme.” Cadmium showed the highest RI values, while mercury reached “moderate” pollution level. The average ΣPAH concentration (24.4 ng g−1) was lower than both the reported EQSs and the values found in literature for unpolluted or moderately polluted river sediments. Increased heavy metal and PAH concentrations were found in sites where mixing of freshwater with reclaimed water occurred. EQSs are suggested to be supplemented with the RI or EF index that consider the natural background to assist a first ecorisk assessment and should be foreseen by 2008/105/EC directive. Sediments can be considered as a valuable matrix in assessing the spatial and temporal trends of several contaminants and should be included in the monitoring program of temporary river management plans. Special attention should be given when defining reference sites and the sampling period. Decreasing flow period at the beginning of the spring prevailed in order to diminish any disturbance by flash flood events.
KeywordsWFD EQSs Sediment Heavy metals PAHs Priority substances Temporary rivers
The research reported here received funding from the European Community’s Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2011) under grant agreement 211732 (MIRAGE project. We would like to thanks Vassilis Papadoulakis (Lakonia Prefecture, GR) and Leonidas Vardakas (HCMR, GR) for assisting in sediment sampling, Sarou Maria-Lilly (TUC) for heavy metal analysis, and Stefano Polesello (IRSA) for helpful discussion and draft revision.
- Bednarova, Z., Kuta, J., Kohut, L., Machat, J., Klanova, J., Holoubek, I., Jarkovsky, J., Dusek, L., & Hilscherova, K. (2013). Spatial patterns and temporal changes of heavy metal distributions in river sediments in a region with multiple pollution sources. Journal of Soils and Sediments, 13(7), 1257–1269. doi: 10.1007/s11368-013-0706-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- CCME (2003) Canadian environmental quality guidelines canadian council of ministers of the environment, Winnipeg.Google Scholar
- Chapman, P. M., Barrick, R. C., Neff, J. M., & Swartz, R. C. (1987). Four independent approaches to developing sediment quality criteria yield similar values for model contaminants. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 6, 723–725.Google Scholar
- European Commission. (2008). Directive 2008/105/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on environmental quality standards in the field of water policy, amending and subsequently repealing Council Directives 82/176/EEC, 83/513/EEC, 84/156/EEC, 84/ 491/EEC, 86/280/EEC and amending Directive 2000/60/EC (p. L 348 84). Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.Google Scholar
- EC (2010) Guidance document No. 25 on chemical monitoring of sediment and Biota under the WaterFramework Directive. Common implementation strategy for the water framework directive technical report-2010-041 doi: 10.2779/43586.
- EC (2011) Guidance document No. 27, Technical guidance for deriving environmental quality standards doi: 10.2779/43816.
- Hahladakis, J., Smaragdaki, E., Vasilaki, G., Gidarakos, E. (2012) Use of sediment quality guidelines and pollution indicators for the assessment of heavy metal and PAH contamination in Greek surficial sea and lake sediments. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment:1–11Google Scholar
- Liu, F., Liu, J., Chen, Q., Wang, B., Cao, Z. (2013a) Pollution characteristics and ecological risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments of the southern part of the Haihe River system in China. Chinese Science Bulletin:1–9Google Scholar
- Nikolaidis, N., et al. (2013) Towards a sustainable management of Mediterranean river basins - Policy recommendations on management aspects of temporary streams. Water Policy In pressGoogle Scholar
- Okoro, D., & Ikolo, A. O. (2007). Sources and compositional distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils of Western Niger Delta. Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 12, 35–40.Google Scholar
- Patrolecco, L., Ademollo, N., Capri, S., Pagnotta, R., & Polesello, S. (2010). Occurrence of priority hazardous PAHs in water, suspended particulate matter, sediment and common eels (Anguilla anguilla) in the urban stretch of the River Tiber (Italy). Chemosphere, 81, 1386–1392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Prat Nea (2013) The MIRAGE toolbox: an integrated assessment tool for temporary streams river research and applications: In ReviewGoogle Scholar
- Prat, N., Gallart, F., Von Schiller, D., Polesello, S., García-Roger, E. M., Latron, J., Rieradevall, M., Llorens, P., Barberá, G. G., Brito, D., De Girolamo, A. M., Dieter, D., Lo Porto, A., Buffagni, A., Erba, S., Nikolaidis, N. P., Querner, E. P., Tournoud, M. G., Tzoraki, O., Skoulikidis, N., Gómez, R., Sánchez-Montoya, M. M., Tockner, K., & Froebrich, J. (2014). The mirage toolbox: an integrated assessment tool for temporary streams. River Research and Applications, 30, 1318–1334. doi: 10.1002/rra.2757.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Prica, M., Dalmacija, B., Rončević, S., Krčmar, D., & Bečelić, M. (2008). A comparison of sediment quality results with acid volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) ratio in Vojvodina (Serbia) sediments. Science of the Total Environment, 389, 235–244. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2007.09.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Violintzis, C., Arditsoglou, A., & Voutsa, D. (2009). Elemental composition of suspended particulate matter and sediments in the coastal environment of Thermaikos Bay, Greece: delineating the impact of inland waters and wastewaters. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 166, 1250–1260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wang, Y., Li, X., Li, B. H., Shen, Z. Y., Feng, C. H., & Chen, Y. X. (2012). Characterization, sources, and potential risk assessment of PAHs in surface sediments from nearshore and farther shore zones of the Yangtze estuary China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 19, 4148–4158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zhang, L., & Liu, J. (2014). In situ relationships between spatial–temporal variations in potential ecological risk indexes for metals and the short-term effects on periphyton in a macrophyte-dominated lake: a comparison of structural and functional metrics. Ecotoxicology, 23, 553–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zhang, Y., & Wang, J. (2010). Pollution survey and source identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface soil of Jiaxing (pp 204–209). China.Google Scholar