Can Simple Soil Parameters Explain Field-Scale Variations in Glyphosate-, Bromoxyniloctanoate-, Diflufenican-, and Bentazone Mineralization?
- 229 Downloads
The large spatial heterogeneity in soil physico-chemical and microbial parameters challenges our ability to predict and model pesticide leaching from agricultural land. Microbial mineralization of pesticides is an important process with respect to pesticide leaching since mineralization is the major process for the complete degradation of pesticides without generation of metabolites. The aim of our study was to determine field-scale variation in the potential for mineralization of the herbicides glyphosate, bromoxyniloctanoate, diflufenican, and bentazone and to investigate whether this variation can be predicted by variations in basic soil parameters. Sixty-five soil samples were sampled from an agricultural, loamy field in Silstrup, Denmark, from a 60 × 165 m rectangular grid. The mineralization potential of the four pesticides was determined using a 96-well microplate 14C-radiorespirometric method. Initial mineralization rates were determined using first-order kinetics for glyphosate and bromoxyniloctanoate and zero-order kinetics for diflufenican and bentazone. The mineralization rates of the four pesticides varied between the different pesticides and the different soil samples, but we could not establish correlations between the pesticide mineralization rates and the measured soil parameters. Only the glyphosate mineralization rates showed slightly increasing mineralization potentials towards the northern area of the field, with increasing clay and decreasing OC contents. The mineralization potentials for glyphosate and bentazone were compared with 9-years leaching data from two horizontal wells 3.5 m below the field. The field-scale leaching patterns, however, could not be explained by the pesticide mineralization data. Instead, field-scale pesticide leaching may have been governed by soil structure and preferential flow events.
KeywordsField-scale variation Pesticide mineralization Soil characterization Correlation analysis Pesticide leaching
The study was funded by the Danish Research Council for Technology and Production Sciences through the project “Soil Infrastructure, Interfaces, and Translocation Processes in Inner Space (Soil-it-is)” and by the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme.
- Bending, G. D., Lincoln, S. D., Sorensen, S. R., Morgan, J. A. W., Aamand, J., & Walker, A. (2003). In-field spatial variability in the degradation of the phenyl-urea herbicide isoproturon is the result of interactions between degradative Sphingomonas spp. and soil pH. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 69, 827–834.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- de Jonge, L. W., Moldrup, P., & Schjonning, P. (2009). Soil infrastructure, interfaces and translocation processes in inner space (‘soil-it-is’): towards a road map for the constraints and crossroads of soil architecture and biophysical processes. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 13, 1485–1502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dechesne, A., Badawi, N., Aamand, J., & Smets, B. F. (2014). Fine scale spatial variability of microbial pesticide degradation in soil: scales, controlling factors, and implications. Frontiers in Microbiology, 5.Google Scholar
- El Sebai, T., Lagacherie, B., Soulas, G., & Martin-Laurent, F. (2007). Spatial variability of isoproturon mineralizing activity within an agricultural field: geostatistical analysis of simple physicochemical and microbiological soil parameters. Environmental Pollution, 145, 680–690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gee, G. W., & Or, D. (2002). Methods of soil analysis. Part 4. Physical methods. Madison: Soil Science Society of America.Google Scholar
- Lindhardt, B., Abildtrup, C., Vosgerau, H., Olsen, P., Torp, S., Iversen, B. V., Jørgensen, J. O., Plauborg, F., Rasmussen, P., & Gravesen, P. (2001). The Danish pesticide leaching assessment programme—site characterization and monitoring design. Copenhagen: Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland. ISBN: 87-7871-094-4.Google Scholar
- Miljøstyrelsen. (2014). Bekæmpelsesmiddel-statistik 2013. København K: Miljøstyrelsen. ISBN: 978-87-93283-33-6.Google Scholar
- Norgaard, T., Moldrup, P., Olsen, P., Vendelboe, A. L., Iversen, B. V., Greve, M. H., Kjaer, J., & de Jonge, L. W. (2012). Comparative mapping of soil physical-chemical and structural parameters at field scale to identify zones of enhanced leaching risk. Journal of Environmental Quality, 42, 271–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Norgaard, T., Moldrup, P., Ferre, T. P. A., Olsen, P., Rosenbom, A. E., & de Jonge, L. W. (2014). Leaching of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid from an agricultural field over a twelve-year period. Vadose Zone Journal, 13. doi: 10.2136/vzj2014.2105.0054.
- Paradelo, M., Norgaard, T., Moldrup, P., Ferré, T. P. A., Kumari, K. G. I. D., Arthur, E. & de Jonge, L. W. (2015). Prediction of the glyphosate sorption coefficient across two loamy agricultural fields. Geoderma, Submitted.Google Scholar
- Rasmussen, J., Aamand, J., Rosenberg, P., Jacobsen, O. S., & Sørensen, S. R. (2005). Spatial variability in the mineralisation of the phenylurea herbicide linuron within a Danish agricultural field: multivariate correlation to simple soil parameters. Pest Management Science, 61, 829–837.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rosenbom, A. E., Brüsch, W., Juhler, R. K., Ernstsen, V., Gudmundsson, L., Kjær, J., Plauborg, F., Grant, R., Nyegaard, P., & Olsen, P. (2010). The Danish pesticide leaching assessment programme—monitoring results May 1999-June 2009. Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, ISBN: 978-87-7871-252-3.Google Scholar
- Schoumans, O. F. (2000). Determination of the degree of phosphate saturation in non-calcareous soils. In G. M. Pierzynski (Ed.), Methods of phosphorus analysis for soils, sediments, residuals, and waters (pp. 31–34). Raleigh NC (USA), North Carolina State Univ. South. coop. Ser. Bull. 396/Publ. SERA-IEG 17.Google Scholar
- Shymko, J. L., & Farenhorst, A. (2008). 2,4-D mineralization in unsaturated and near-saturated surface soils of an undulating, cultivated Canadian prairie landscape. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part B-Pesticides Food Contaminants and Agricultural Wastes, 43, 34–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tomlin, C. D. S. (2000). The pesticide manual: a world compendium (12th ed.). Farnham: British Crop Protection Council.Google Scholar
- Vinther, F. P., Brinch, U. C., Elsgaard, L., Fredslund, L., Iversen, B. V., Torp, S., & Jacobsen, C. S. (2008). Field-scale variation in microbial activity and soil properties in relation to mineralization and sorption of pesticides in a sandy soil. Journal of Environmental Quality, 37, 1710–1718.CrossRefGoogle Scholar