Evaluation of the Impact of Different Soil Salinization Processes on Organic and Mineral Soils
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Soil salinization is a worldwide problem of which secondary salinization is increasingly more frequent, threatening agricultural production. Salt accumulation affects not only plants but also the physio-chemical characteristics of the soil, limiting its potential use. Climate change will further increase the rate of salinization of soil and groundwater as it leads to increased evaporation, promotes capillary rise of saline groundwater as well as increased irrigation with brackish water. Episodic seawater inundation of coastal areas is likely to increase in frequency as well. This work analyzed three types of salinization: seawater inundation (by irrigating soils with a 54 dS m−1 NaCl solution), saline groundwater capillary rise (soil contact with a 27 dS m−1 NaCl solution), and irrigation with two types of brackish water with different residual sodium carbonate (RSC). Two soils were used: a mineral soil (7.0 % clay; 0.7 % organic matter) and an organic soil (2.7 % clay; 7.4 % organic matter). The tested soils had different resilience to salinization: The mineral soil had higher sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) due to low levels of calcium + magnesium but had higher leaching efficiency and more limited effects of RSC. The organic soil however was more prone to capillary rise but seemingly more structurally stable. Our results suggest that short-term inundation with seawater can be mitigated by leaching although soil structure may be affected and that capillary rise of brackish groundwater should be carefully monitored. Also, the impact of irrigation with brackish water with high RSC can be inferior in soils with higher exchangeable acidity.
KeywordsSoil salinization Seawater inundation Brackish irrigation Capillary rise
The authors would like to acknowledge the Portuguese Science and Technology Foundation (FCT) for the PhD grant (FCT–DFRH–SFRH/BD/84750/2012) and the Ciência 2008 program. In addition, the authors would like the thank Prof. Aurora Silva (FEUP) and Prof. Cristina Vila (FEUP) for assistance in data acquisition methods, Prof. Joaquim Góis (FEUP) for help in statistical analysis, and Prof. Manuela Carvalho (ISEP) for sharing her data on soil analysis.
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