Water, Air, & Soil Pollution

, 226:108

Cost–Benefit Analysis of Reducing Premature Mortality Caused by Exposure to Ozone and PM2.5 in East Asia in 2020

  • Fang Chen
  • Ken Yamashita
  • Junichi Kurokawa
  • Zbigniew Klimont


In this paper, we compared the costs and benefits of reducing premature mortality caused by exposure to surface ozone and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm (PM2.5) in East Asia in 2020. The cost of ozone and PM2.5 emission reduction is estimated using the Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS)-China model. The benefit of reducing premature mortality caused by exposure to corresponding ozone and PM2.5 emission is valued by the value of statistical life (VSL). The costs and benefits are evaluated for two emission reduction policies in 2020 with varying stringency in China: Case FS (the strict policy implementation case in China) and Case FR (the less strict policy implementation case in China). For ozone, the emission reduction cost and the benefit of life saving are 33,000 and 8200, 36,600–99,700 and 22,200–60,700 (million int. $, 2005), for Case FS and Case FR, respectively. The corresponding cost and benefit for PM2.5 are 3580 and 523, 292,000–797,000 and 194,000–530,000 (million int. $, 2005), respectively. In total (ozone and PM2.5), the respective values are 36,400 and 8720, 329,000–897,000 and 217,000–591,000 (million int. $, 2005). Owing to these large benefits and also relatively low PM control costs, the benefits of controlling PM2.5 surpass control costs significantly. The benefit/cost ratio is especially high for PM2.5 for both policies and highlight the priority of controlling aerosol emissions in East Asia.


Cost–benefit analysis GAINS-China VSL Ozone PM2.5 East Asia 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fang Chen
    • 1
  • Ken Yamashita
    • 1
  • Junichi Kurokawa
    • 1
  • Zbigniew Klimont
    • 2
  1. 1.Asia Center for Air Pollution ResearchNiigataJapan
  2. 2.The International Institute for Applied Systems AnalysisLaxenburgAustria

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