The dynamic behavior of water quality and quantity in the Egyptian drains is often viewed as a disruption to the normal operation and performance of the process of water reuse in irrigation. The control of such behavior has been challenging and often elusive in practice. Therefore, this paper presents a framework to advance the understanding and opportunities for improving the reuse process by developing a multivariate process control model. The model starts with preliminary analysis for water quality data that are collected at the reuse site on the examined drain. This phase comprises investigating data distribution and dependency. Then, univariate control charts are used to investigate the state of control for the independent and normally distributed variables. For dependent variables, principal components analysis is used as a method of synthesizing the variables information. In this case, principal component scores are displayed using multivariate control charts. If in-control case existed, process capability index is used to provide a numerical measure of whether or not the reuse process is capable of producing water that satisfies the irrigation quality standards. Since the model will only detect assignable causes if out-of-control or in-capable case existed, management, operational, and/or engineering action will usually be necessary to sustain the reuse process. In these cases, an action plan in response to the model signals will be vital. The main function of the proposed model is to safely manage the reuse practice using statistical quality control techniques. The model was demonstrated using water quality data collected during the period from January 2006 to July 2011 from Hanut (EH02) and El-Salam 3 (ESL03) pump stations along Hadus drain, Eastern Nile Delta-Egypt. The recommended model is automatic, algorithmic, self-tuning, and computerizable.
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Shaban, M. Drainage Water Reuse: State of Control and Process Capability Evaluation. Water Air Soil Pollut 225, 2168 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-014-2168-6
- Drainage water reuse
- State of control
- Process capability
- Multivariate control charts