Stabilization of Sewage Sludge by Using Various By-products: Effects on Soil Properties, Biomass Production, and Bioavailability of Copper and Zinc
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Stabilization of sewage sludge (SS) prior to its land disposal may help control the mobility of SS-borne contaminants, particularly potentially toxic metals. We examined the effects of stabilized SS application on soil properties, biomass production, and phytoavailability of Cu and Zn to plants grown in two contrasting soils, Entisol and Aridisol. Stabilized SS mixtures were created by mixing SS in a 3-to-1 ratio with bentonite (B), sugar beet factory lime (SL), brick factory fly ash (BFA), rice straw (RS), water hyacinth (WH), and 50:50 mixture of RS and SL. Mixtures were applied at 50 Mg ha−1, and Sorghum vulgare L. and Eurica sativa were grown in a pot experiment. All the amendments increased plant availability and uptake of both Cu and Zn compared to the unamended control. The application of stabilized SS increased dry plant biomass significantly and decreased DTPA-extractable elements compared to the non-stabilized SS treatment. We conclude that of the six amendments studied, especially sugar beet factory lime (SL) and bentonite (B), are promising for the stabilization of metal-contaminated biosolids and should be tested under field conditions.
KeywordsTrace elements Waste recycling Contaminant stabilization
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