Water, Air, & Soil Pollution

, 225:1803 | Cite as

Assessment of the Hydraulic and Toxic Metal Removal Capacities of Bioretention Cells After 2 to 8 Years of Service

  • Kim H. Paus
  • Joel Morgan
  • John S. Gulliver
  • TorOve Leiknes
  • Raymond M. Hozalski
Article

Abstract

Bioretention cells, also known as raingardens, are increasingly being constructed as a means to collect, infiltrate, and treat stormwater runoff. There are concerns, however, about how stormwater management practices might function in terms of infiltration and pollutant removal as they age. Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) values were obtained for eight cells in 2006 and again for three of those cells in 2010 using an infiltrometer. A strong positive correlation of mean Ksat with service time was observed (slope = 10.2 ± 2.4 cm/h per year, R2 = 0.67). Results from metals analyses of bioretention media cores collected from six bioretention cells showed the expected trend of Cu and Zn enrichment at the surface while Cd was detected only in one out of 72 media samples analyzed. Sorption isotherms from batch testing of field media samples (T = 22.5 °C, pH = 7.2) were used to estimate metal sorption capacities based on representative stormwater Cd and Zn concentrations. Cu was not considered, as very little of the metal is dissolved under these conditions (22.8 ± 7.1 %). The mean equilibrium sorption capacities for Cd (10.2 ± 3.1 mg/kg) and Zn (294.9 ± 14.9 mg/kg) far exceeded observed levels in the bioretention media such that the remaining sorption capacity was ≥83 % for Zn and ≥90 % for Cd for the cells. Overall, the results of this investigation suggest that bioretention cells can provide many years of effective infiltration (>6 years) and metals removal performance (>25 years).

Keywords

Bioretention Stormwater Metals Sorption Hydraulic conductivity Organic matter 

Supplementary material

11270_2013_1803_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (2.7 mb)
ESM 1(PDF 2.74 mb)

References

  1. Amrhein, C., Strong, J. E., & Mosher, P. A. (1992). Effect of deicing salts on metal and organic matter mobilization in roadside soils. Environmental Science and Technology, 26(4), 703–709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Archer, N. A. L., Quinton, J. N., & Hess, T. M. (2002). Below-ground relationships of soil texture, roots and hydraulic conductivity in two-phase mosaic vegetation in South-east Spain. Journal of Arid Environments, 52(4), 535–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Asare, S. N., Rudra, R. P., Dickinson, W. T., & Wall, G. J. (1999). Effect of freeze–thaw cycle on the parameters of the Green and Ampt infiltration equation. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 73(3), 265–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Asleson, B. C., Nestingen, R. S., Gulliver, J. S., Hozalski, R. M., & Nieber, J. L. (2009). Performance assessment of rain gardens. Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 45(4), 1019–1031.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Davis, A. P., Shokouhian, M., & Ni, S. B. (2001). Loading estimates of lead, copper, cadmium, and zinc in urban runoff from specific sources. Chemosphere, 44(5), 997–1009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Davis, A. P., Shokouhian, M., Sharma, H., Minami, C., & Winogradoff, D. (2003). Water quality improvement through bioretention: lead, copper, and zinc removal. Water Environment Research, 78(3), 284–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dietz, M. E., & Clausen, J. C. (2006). Saturation to improve pollutant retention in a rain garden. Environmental Science and Technology, 40(4), 1335–1340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dingman, S. L. (2002). Physical hydrology. Prentice-Hall, (2nd), New Jersey, USA.Google Scholar
  9. Emerson, C. H., & Traver, R. G. (2008). Multiyear and seasonal variation of infiltration from storm-water best management practices. ASCE Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 134(5), 598–605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Facility for Advancing Water Biofiltration (FAWB). (2009). Stormwater bioinfiltration systems. Melbourne, Australia: Adorption Guidelines.Google Scholar
  11. Glass, C., and Bissouma, S. (2005). Evaluation of a parking lot bioretention cell for removal of stormwater pollutants. In: Ecosystems and Sustainable Development V, pp. 699–708.Google Scholar
  12. Gregory, J. H., Dukes, M. D., Jones, P. H., & Miller, G. L. (2006). Effect of urban soil compaction on infiltration rate. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 61(3), 117–124.Google Scholar
  13. Hatt, B. E., Fletcher, T. D., & Deletic, A. (2007). Treatment performance of gravel filter media: implications for design and application of stormwater infiltration systems. Water Research, 41(12), 2513–2524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Heier, L. S., Lien, I. B., Stromseng, A. E., Ljones, M., Rosseland, B. O., Tollefsen, K.-E., et al. (2009). Speciation of lead, copper, zinc and antimony in water draining a shooting range—time dependant metal accumulation and biomarker responses in brown trout (Salmo trutta L.). Science of the Total Environment, 407(13), 4047–4055.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hong, E. Y., Seagren, E. A., & Davis, A. P. (2006). Sustainable oil and grease removal from synthetic stormwater runoff using bench-scale bioretention studies. Water Environment Research, 78(2), 141–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jones, P. S., & Davis, A. P. (2013). Spatial accumulation and strength of affiliation of heavy metals in bioretention media. Environmental Science and Technology, 139(4), 479–487.Google Scholar
  17. Kayhanian, M., Suverkropp, C., Ruby, A., & Tsay, K. (2007). Characterization and prediction of highway runoff constituent event mean concentration. Journal of Environmental Management, 85(2), 279–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Klute, A. (1986). Methods of soil analysis: Part I (Physical and mineralogical methods. 2nd edition). Madison: Soil Science Society of America.Google Scholar
  19. Lamande, M., Hallaire, V., Curmi, P., Peres, G., & Cluzeau, D. (2003). Changes of pore morphology, infiltration and earthworm community in a loamy soil under different agricultural managements. Catena, 54(3), 637–649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Langergraber, G., Haberl, R., Laber, J., & Pressl, A. (2003). Evaluation of substrate clogging processes in vertical flow constructed wetlands. Water Science and Technology, 48(5), 25–34.Google Scholar
  21. Le Coustumer, S., Fletcher, T. D., Deletic, A., Barraud, S., & Lewis, J. F. (2009). Hydraulic performance of biofilter systems for stormwater management: influences of design and operation. Journal of Hydrology, 376(1–2), 16–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. LeFevre, G. H., Novak, P. J., & Hozalski, R. H. (2012). Fate of Naphthalene in Laboratory-Scale Bioretention Cells: Implications for Sustainable Stormwater Management. Environmental Science and Technology, 46(2), 995–1002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Li, H., & Davis, A. P. (2008a). Heavy metal capture and accumulation in bioretention media. Environmental Science and Technology, 42(13), 5247–5253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Li, H., & Davis, A. P. (2008b). Urban particle capture in bioretention media: I. Laboratory and field studies. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 134(6), 409–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Maestre, A., & Pitt, R. (2005). The national stormwater quality database, Version 1.1 A Compilation and analysis of NPDES stormwater monitoring information, U.S. Washington, DC: EPA Office of Water.Google Scholar
  26. Marsalek, J., Rochfort, Q., Brownlee, B., Mayer, T., & Servos, M. (1999). An exploratory study of urban runoff toxicity. Water Science and Technology, 39(12), 33–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Minitab (2010). Minitab Statistical Software Version 16.1.0. Google Scholar
  28. Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) (2008). Minnesota stormwater manual. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA. http://www.pca.state.mn.us/index.php/water/water-types-and-programs/stormwater/stormwater-management/minnesotas-stormwater-manual.html.
  29. Morgan, J. (2011). Sorption and release of dissolved pollutants via bioretention media. Minneapolis, USA: M.Sc. thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Minnesota.Google Scholar
  30. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) (2013). Climate normals for Minneapolis/St. Paul (1981–2010). http://climate.umn.edu/pdf/normals_means_and_extremes/msp_normals_1981-2010.pdf
  31. Nelson, D. W. and Sommers, L. E. (1996). Total carbon, organic carbon, and organic matter. In: Methods of soil analysis. Part 2 ed., A.L. Page et al. Ed. Agronomy 9:961–1010. American Society of Agronomy, (2nd), Madison, Wisconsin, USA.Google Scholar
  32. Nestingen, R. S. (2007). The comparison of infiltration devices and modification of the Philip-Dunne permeameter for the assessment of rain gardens. Minneapolis, USA: M.Sc. thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Minnesota.Google Scholar
  33. Olson, N. C., Gulliver, J. S., Nieber, J. L., & Kayhanian, M. (2013). Remediation to improve infiltration into compact soils. Journal of Environmental Management, 117, 85–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Parkhurst, D. I. and Appelo, C. A. J. (2010). PHREEQC-2 Version 2.17.01.Google Scholar
  35. Petersen, E. J., Jennings, A. A., & Ma, J. (2006). Screening level risk assessment of heavy metal contamination in Cleveland area commons. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 132(3), 392–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Prince George's County (PGC) (2007). Bioretention manual. Environmental Service Division. Department of Environmental Resources, Maryland. http://www.princegeorgescountymd.gov/Government/AgencyIndex/DER/ESG/Bioretention/pdf/Bioretention%20Manual_2009%20Version.pdf.
  37. Sansalone, J. J., & Buchberger, S. G. (1997). Partitioning and first flush of metals in urban roadway storm water. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 123(2), 134–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Saxton, K. E., & Rawls, W. J. (2006). Soil water characteristic estimates by texture and organic matter for hydrologic solutions. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 70(5), 1569–1578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sparks, D. L. (2003). Environmental soil chemistry. Academic Press, (2nd), San Diego, USA.Google Scholar
  40. Sun, X., & Davis, A. P. (2007). Heavy metal fates in laboratory bioretention systems. Chemosphere, 66(9), 1601–1609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kim H. Paus
    • 1
  • Joel Morgan
    • 2
  • John S. Gulliver
    • 2
  • TorOve Leiknes
    • 1
  • Raymond M. Hozalski
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Hydraulic and Environmental EngineeringNorwegian University of Science and TechnologyTrondheimNorway
  2. 2.Department of Civil EngineeringUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations