Water, Air, & Soil Pollution

, 224:1721 | Cite as

Removal of Phenol Using Sulphate Radicals Activated by Natural Zeolite-Supported Cobalt Catalysts

  • Syaifullah Muhammad
  • Edy Saputra
  • Hongqi Sun
  • H. M. Ang
  • Moses O. Tadé
  • Shaobin Wang
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Remediation of Site Contamination


Two Co oxide catalysts supported on natural zeolites from Indonesia (INZ) and Australia (ANZ) were prepared and used to activate peroxymonosulphate for degradation of aqueous phenol. The two catalysts were characterized by several techniques such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and N2 adsorption. It was found that Co/INZ and Co/ANZ are effective in activation of peroxymonosulphate to produce sulphate radicals for phenol degradation. Co/INZ and Co/ANZ could remove phenol up to 100 and 70 %, respectively, at the conditions of 25 ppm phenol (500 mL), 0.2 g catalyst, 1 g oxone and 25 °C. Several parameters such as amount of catalyst loading, phenol concentration, oxidant concentration and temperature were found to be the key factors influencing phenol degradation. A pseudo first order would fit to phenol degradation kinetics, and the activation energies on Co/INZ and Co/ANZ were obtained as 52.4 and 61.3 kJ/mol, respectively.


Heterogeneous oxidation Sulphate radical Phenol degradation Natural zeolite Co oxide 



We thank DIKTI sponsor, National Education Department of the government of Indonesia, for providing a scholarship to SM and ES for their PhD study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Syaifullah Muhammad
    • 1
    • 2
  • Edy Saputra
    • 1
    • 3
  • Hongqi Sun
    • 1
  • H. M. Ang
    • 1
  • Moses O. Tadé
    • 1
  • Shaobin Wang
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemical Engineering and Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC-CARE)Curtin UniversityPerthAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Chemical EngineeringSyiah Kuala UniversityBanda AcehIndonesia
  3. 3.Department of Chemical EngineeringRiau UniversityPakanbaruIndonesia

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