Water, Air, & Soil Pollution

, 224:1678 | Cite as

Comparison of Sequential Extraction and Bioaccessibility Analyses of Lead Using Urban Soils and Reference Materials

  • Jeffrey L. HowardEmail author
  • Brian R. Dubay
  • Shawn P. McElmurry
  • Josiah Clemence
  • W. Lee Daniels


A study was undertaken using urban soils in Detroit, MI and reference materials (cerussite, anglesite, pyromorphite, apatite, goethite, calcite, pyrolusite, and peat) to determine which geochemical forms of Pb measured by sequential extraction analysis are bioaccessible. The results suggest that the water soluble (Pb-fulvic acid complexes), exchangeable, and part of the carbonate-occluded fractions are bioaccessible. The Fe oxide-occluded, Mn oxide-occluded, and higher molecular weight component of the organically bound fraction are not bioaccessible. Sequential extraction predicts the presence of detectable levels of bioaccessible Pb in the rhizosphere when the summed total is ≥90 mg kg−1 and labile Pb is ≥30 mg kg−1. Cerussite (paint-Pb) and anglesite (auto-Pb), recovered mainly in the carbonate-occluded fraction, may cause an overestimation of calcite-Pb. Pyromorphite and apatite Pb (bone) may cause an overestimation of Fe oxide-occluded Pb.


Anthrosol Pollution Sequential extraction Bioaccessibility 



Thanks to Amy Benchich, Ryan Thomas, and Sharla Wood (Wayne State University); Joe Calus and Eric Gano (USDA-NRCS); and John Galbraith and Julie Burger (VPI&SU) for their assistance during this study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeffrey L. Howard
    • 1
    Email author
  • Brian R. Dubay
    • 1
  • Shawn P. McElmurry
    • 2
  • Josiah Clemence
    • 2
  • W. Lee Daniels
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of GeologyWayne State UniversityDetroitUSA
  2. 2.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringWayne State UniversityDetroitUSA
  3. 3.Department of Crop and Soil Environmental SciencesVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State UniversityBlacksburgUSA

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