Phytotoxicity of Long-Term Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soil—A Comparative and Combined Approach

  • Kanaji Masakorala
  • Jun Yao
  • Huan Guo
  • Radhika Chandankere
  • Jingwei Wang
  • Minmin Cai
  • Haijun Liu
  • Martin M. F. Choi
Article

Abstract

Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination of soil is an emerging environmental threat on the Earth due to possible toxic impact on different ecological receptors. The present study was mainly carried out to evaluate the phytotoxicity of long-term total petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils by the toxicity end points obtained from three plant species Zea mays, Lactuca sativa L., and Cucumis sativus. The tested soil exerted phytotoxicity for all the evaluated end points of plants with dose-dependent relationship. The determined IC50 indicates inhibition in root elongation as the most sensitive toxicity end point for L. sativa L., while inhibition in cross-section area of meristematic zone as the most susceptible and inhibition in seed germination as the least susceptible end points for both Z. mays and C. sativus. The tested root morphometric parameters confirm their applicability as novel toxicity end points. In addition, microcalorimetric analysis confirmed the applicability of inhibition in metabolic heat emission rate as a toxicity end point. Microcalorimetry can be applied to determine the exerted phytotoxic effect on seedlings. The present combined approach concludes that the phytotoxicity of the tested soil is species-specific and varies as follows: Z. mays < C. sativus < L. sativa L. The findings of this study may have implications in planning comprehensive phytotoxicity assessment for hydrocarbon-contaminated soils or screening plant species for phytoremediation program.

Keywords

Total petroleum hydrocarbon Phytotoxicity Morphometric parameters Metabolic heat 

Supplementary material

11270_2013_1553_MOESM1_ESM.doc (30 kb)
ESM 1(DOC 30 kb)

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kanaji Masakorala
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jun Yao
    • 1
    • 3
  • Huan Guo
    • 1
  • Radhika Chandankere
    • 1
  • Jingwei Wang
    • 1
  • Minmin Cai
    • 1
  • Haijun Liu
    • 1
  • Martin M. F. Choi
    • 4
  1. 1.School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, and National “International Cooperation Based on Environment and Energy”University of Science and Technology BeijingBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of Botany, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of RuhunaMatara,Sri Lanka
  3. 3.State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology and Sino-Hungarian Joint Laboratory of Environmental Science and HealthChina University of GeosciencesWuhanPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.Department of ChemistryHong Kong Baptist UniversityHong KongPeople’s Republic of China

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