The Use of Microwave Assisted Extraction and On-line Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry for Determining Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds in Sewage Sludges
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A new analytical methodology based on ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) after microwave assisted extraction, followed by a clean-up and preconcentration step with solid phase extraction (MAE–SPE) has been developed for the simultaneous determination of 11 endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), including alkylphenolic compounds, bisphenol A, and various synthetic and natural steroidal hormones, in sewage sludge samples. The effects of different variables on MAE-SPE were studied and optimised. The recoveries obtained were higher than 77 %, whereas the relative standard deviations were less than 9 %. The detection limits ranged between 0.1 and 0.7 ng g−1. The developed methodology was successfully applied to the assessment of the presence of EDCs to sewage sludge samples that were collected bimonthly during 1 year and a half from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain). All compounds were consistently found in all the samples under study.
KeywordsEndocrine-disrupting UHPLC Mass spectrometry Microwave assisted extraction Sludge samples Factorial design
Tanausú Vega-Morales thanks the Spanish Ministry of Education for his Ph.D. student grant.
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