Individual and Mixture Toxicity of Commercial Formulations Containing Glyphosate, Metsulfuron-Methyl, Bispyribac-Sodium, and Picloram on Rhinella arenarum Tadpoles
We investigated the effects of four commercial formulations of herbicides (glyphosate [GLY], metsulfuron-methyl [MET], bispyribac-sodium [BIS], and picloram [PIC]) individually, and in three 50:50 mixtures (GLY–MET, GLY–BIS, GLY–PIC) on the common toad Rhinella arenarum (Anura: Bufonidae) tadpoles. Enzymatic parameters such as, glutathione S-transferase (GST), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities, as well as erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities (ENA) were studied. Interactions between herbicides in mixtures were evaluated and classified as additive, synergistic, or antagonistic. Toxicity results (48-h LC50) showed that PIC was the most toxic herbicide, followed by BIS, GLY, and MET, while GLY–PIC was the most toxic mixture, followed by GLY–BIS, and GLY–MET. All commercial herbicide formulations and their mixtures significantly inhibited BChE activity in exposed tadpoles. The AChE activity was also inhibited by all herbicides and their mixtures, except by GLY–BIS. The inhibition of GST activity was only significant for GLY, MET, PIC, and GLY–MET. A significant increase in the frequency of ENA was found for tadpoles exposed either to commercial herbicide formulations or to mixtures, except for GLY. All the mixtures showed synergism for BChE activity while for AChE only the GLY–MET and GLY–PIC mixtures acted synergistically. GLY–MET showed synergism for GST, whereas for ENA, the mixture GLY–BIS was antagonistic. This study with R. arenarum tadpoles demonstrates that the interactions between three of the most intensively used herbicides in soybean crops results in synergistic effects on mortality and neurotoxicity and synergistic or additive effects in genotoxicity.