Water, Air, & Soil Pollution

, Volume 223, Issue 9, pp 6035–6044 | Cite as

Phytodecontamination of the Endocrine Disruptor 4-Nonylphenol in Water Also in the Presence of Two Natural Organic Fractions

  • C. Eliana GattulloEmail author
  • Andreina Traversa
  • Nicola Senesi
  • Elisabetta Loffredo


The objective of this study was to assess the removal of the endocrine disruptor 4-nonylphenol (NP) at a concentration of 1 mg L−1 by ryegrass and radish during germination and growth. The decontamination process was evaluated in water only or in water containing two organic fractions, a soil humic acid (HA) and a river natural organic matter (NOM) at concentrations of 10 and 200 mg L−1. The addition of these fractions aimed to simulate the organic content of real aqueous systems. At the end of germination and growth, residual NP was measured by chromatographic analysis. Also, NP phytotoxicity was evaluated during germination. In germination experiments, NP in water only was not toxic for ryegrass and radish which removed, respectively, 37 and 51 % of the initial NP added. In water added with HA or NOM at both doses, in general, NP did not influence or inhibited seed germination. Both doses of HA in water promoted the removal of NP by germinating seeds, whereas NOM exerted differentiated results in the two species as a function of the dose applied. After 2 days of growth, in all treatments both species almost completely removed NP and accumulated a very little fraction of product. This study demonstrated that both ryegrass and radish possess a relevant capacity to remove the endocrine disruptor NP from water also in the presence of different organic fractions, thus suggesting their use in the decontamination of real aquatic systems.


Water Humic acid Natural organic matter Nonylphenol Ryegrass Radish 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Eliana Gattullo
    • 1
    Email author
  • Andreina Traversa
    • 1
  • Nicola Senesi
    • 1
  • Elisabetta Loffredo
    • 1
  1. 1.Dipartimento di Biologia e Chimica Agro-forestale e AmbientaleUniversity of BariBariItaly

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