Soil Depletion of Ca, Mg and K Due to Vicinal Intensive Hog Farming Operation Located in East Mediterranean
- 238 Downloads
One of the main environmental impacts of concentrated animal feeding operations is soil degradation in the vicinity of the livestock breeding facilities due to substances such as ammonia emitted from the various stages of the process. In this research, the soil degradation effects of an intensive hog farming operation (IHFO) located at a Mediterranean limestone soil coastal area have been investigated. Soil samples of the upper mineral soil were taken in various distances and directions from the IHFO boundaries. Thirteen experimental cycles were carried out in the duration of 1.5 years starting in March 2009 until October 2010. The soil samples were analysed on total, exchangeable and water-soluble Ca, Mg and K as well as water-soluble ammonium concentrations. Significantly lower concentrations of the exchangeable and water-soluble base cations were observed on soil samples at increasing proximity downwind from the farm (south). Southern soil average concentrations of exchangeable base cations ranged between 78.6 and 128.52 mmol Ca2+ kg−1 soil, 8.42–21.39 mmol Mg2+ kg−1 soil and 4.25–8.1 mmol K+ kg−1 soil, respectively. Southern soil average concentrations of water-soluble base cations ranged between 0.57 and 2.17 mmol Ca2+ kg−1 soil, 0.16–0.89 mmol Mg2+ kg−1 soil and 0.48–0.95 mmol K+ kg−1 soil, respectively.
KeywordsEast Mediterranean Environmental impacts Intensive hog farming operations Soil depletion of Ca, Mg and K
- Aneja, V. P., Roelle, P. A., Murray, G. C., Southerland, J., Willem Erisman, J., Fowler, D., Asman, W. A. H., Patni, N., et al. (2001). Atmospheric nitrogen compounds II: emissions, transport, transformation, deposition and assessment. Atmospheric Environment, 35(11), 1903–1911.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Berendse, F., Lauijsen, C., Okkerman, P., et al. (1988). The acidifying effect of ammonia volatilized from farm-manure on forest soils. Ecological Bulletin, 39, 136–138.Google Scholar
- Bobbink, R., Hicks, K., Galloway, J., Spranger, T., Alkemade, R., Ashmore, M., Bustamante, M., Cinderby, S., Davidson, E., Dentener, F., Emmet, B., Erisman, J. W., Fenn, M., Gilliam, F., Nordin, A., Pardo, L., De Vries, W., et al. (2010). Global assessment of nitrogen deposition effects on terrestrial plant diversity: a synthesis. Ecological Applications, 20(1), 30–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bolan, N. S., Loganathan, P., Saggar, S., et al. (2005). Calcium and magnesium in soils. In D. Hillel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of soils in the environment (pp. 149–154). USA: Elsevier Ltd.Google Scholar
- Coyne, M. S., & Frye, W. W. (2005). Nitrogen in soils. In D. Hillel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of soils in the environment (pp. 13–21). USA: Elsevier Ltd.Google Scholar
- Heij, G. J., De Vries, W., Posthumus, A. C., Mohren, G. M. J., et al. (1991). Effects of air pollution and acid deposition on forests and forest soils. In G. J. Heij & T. Schneider (Eds.), Acidification research in the Netherlands—final report of the Dutch Priority Programme on Acidification (pp. 97–139). Amsterdam, London, New York, Tokyo: Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ozeki, T., Ihara, T., Ogawa, N., et al. (2006). Study of pollutants in precipitation (rain and snow) transported long distance to west coasts of Japan Islands using oblique rotational factor analysis with partially non-negative constraint. Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems, 82(1–2), 15–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pilkington, M. G., Caporn, S. J. M., Carroll, J. A., Cresswell, N., Lee, J. A., Ashenden, T. W., Brittain, S. A., Reynolds, B., Emmett, B. A., et al. (2005). Effects of increased deposition of atmospheric nitrogen on an upland moor: leaching of N species and soil solution chemistry. Environmental Pollution, 135(1), 29–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pitcairn, C. E. R., Leith, I. D., Sheppard, L. J., Sutton, M. A., Fowler, D., Munro, R. C., Tang, S., Wilson, D., et al. (1998). The relationship between nitrogen deposition, species composition and foliar nitrogen concentrations in woodland flora in the vicinity of livestock farms. Environmental Pollution, 102(1), 41–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Schnoor, J. L., Thorne, P. S., Powers, W., et al. (2002). Fate and transport of air pollutants from CAFOs. Iowa concentrated animal feeding operations air quality study. Iowa State University and the University of Iowa Study Group (Chapter 5). Available from: http://www.public-health.uiowa.edu/ehsrc/CAFOstudy.htm Accessed 31 October 2011.
- Skiba, U., Sheppard, L., Pitcairn, C. E. R., Leith, I., Crossley, A., van Dijk, S., Kennedy, V. H., Fowler, D., et al. (1998). Soil nitrous oxide and nitric oxide emissions as indicators of elevated atmospheric N deposition rates in semi-natural ecosystems. Environmental Pollution, 102(1), 457–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tran, T. S., & Simard, R. R. (1993). Mehlich III - extractable elements. In M. R. Carter (Ed.), Soil sampling and methods of analysis (pp. 43–50). Boca Raton: Lewis Publishers.Google Scholar
- US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), Environmental Response Team (2000). Standard operating procedures-soil sampling. Available from: http://www.epa.gov/region6/6pd/qa/qadevtools/mod5_sops/soil_sampling/ertsop2012-soil.pdf. Accessed 30 May 2011.
- US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). (2002). Non-water quality impact estimates for animal feeding operations. In: Proposed rule development document for Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs), EPA-821-R-01-003 (Chapter 13). Available from: http://www.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/cafo_nonwaterquality.pdf. Accessed 25 Feb 2011.
- Warneck, P. (2000). Chemistry of the natural atmosphere. San Diego: Academic.Google Scholar