Water, Air, & Soil Pollution

, Volume 223, Issue 7, pp 4527–4537 | Cite as

Hydraulic Loading Rate Effect on Removal Rates in a BioSand Filter: A Pilot Study of Three Conditions

  • T. J. Kennedy
  • E. A. Hernandez
  • A. N. Morse
  • T. A. Anderson
Article

Abstract

Safe drinking water is a luxury to approximately 800 million people worldwide. The number of people without access to clean water has been reduced, thanks to technologies like the biosand filter (BSF), an intermittently operated household scale slow sand filter. The BSF outlet (control diameter 0.5″) was modified in this study by reducing the outlet diameter (0.37″ and 0.25″) to determine the effects of hydraulic retention time on removal rates. Filters were dosed with 20 L of spiked lake water daily and observed for pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), fecal coliforms (FC), turbidity, nitrate, nitrite, sulfate, and ammonia until initial flow rates dropped below 0.2 L/min. Consistent with previous studies, the average turbidity was reduced to below 1 NTU; the average DO was reduced by 45 %. No significant difference was observed between the modified BSFs and the control BSF. Removal efficiency of FC was not significantly different between the modified BSFs (93.3 % and 91.9 %) and the control BSF (89.6 %). Mean FC reduction during the startup period (17 days) was significantly greater in the modified 0.25″ BSF when compared with the control during the same time period. After the first 17 days of the experiment, the average reduction efficiency of all filters was >97 %. While source water was below guideline values for nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, and sulfate during the course of the experiment, total nitrogen reduction was observed. The reduction indicates that the plastic BSF is capable of accomplishing limited denitrification during the filtering process.

Keywords

Biosand filter Point of use Water treatment Developing world Denitrification 

References

  1. Ahammed, M. M., & Davra, K. (2011). Performance evaluation of biosand filter modified with iron oxide-coated sand for household treatment of drinking water. Desalination, 276, 287–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. APHA. (1995). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. Washington: American Public Health Association.Google Scholar
  3. Baig, S. A., Mahmood, Q., Nawab, B., Shafqat, M. N., & Pervez, A. (2011). Improvement of drinking water quality by using plant biomass through household biosand filter—a decentralized approach. Ecological Engineering, 37, 1842–1848.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baumgartner, J., Murcott, S. & Ezzati, M. (2007). ‘Reconsidering ‘appropriate technology’: the effects of operating conditions on the bacterial removal performance of two household drinking-water filter systems’, Environmental Research Letters, 2, 1-6.Google Scholar
  5. Buzunis, B. J. (1995). ‘Intermittently Operated Slow Sand Filtration: A New Water Treatment Process’, Masters Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Calgary.Google Scholar
  6. Campos, L. C., Su, M. F. J., Graham, N. J. D., & Smith, S. R. (2002). Biomass development in slow sand filters. Water Research, 36, 4543–4551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Duke, W., Nordin, R., Baker, D. & Mazumder, A. (2006). ‘The use and performance of BioSand filters in the Artibonite Valley of Haiti: a field study of 107 households’, Rural Remote health 6: 570.Google Scholar
  8. Earwaker, P. (2006). Evaluation of household biosand filters in Ethiopi. Silsoe: School of Applied Science, Cranfield University.Google Scholar
  9. Elliott, M. A., Stauber, C. E., Koksal, F., DiGiano, F. A., & Sobsey, M. D. (2008). Reductions of E. coli, echovirus type 12 and bacteriophages in an intermittently operated household-scale slow sand filter. Water Research, 42, 2662–2670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fewster, E., Mol, A., & Wiesent-Brandsma, C. (2004). The long-term sustainability of household bio-sand filtration. In 30th WEDC International Conference. Vientiane: PDR, WEDC.Google Scholar
  11. Huisman, L., & Wood, W. E. (1974). Slow sand filtration. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  12. Jenkins, M. W., Tiwari, S. K., & Darby, J. (2011). Bacterial, viral and turbidity removal by intermittent slow sand filtration for household use in developing countries: experimental investigation and modeling. Water Research, 45, 6227–6239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lee, T. (2001). ‘Biosand Household Water Filter Project in Nepal’, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.Google Scholar
  14. Muhammad, N., Ellis, K., Parr, J. & Smith, M. (1996). ‘Optimization of slow sand filtration’, Reaching the Unreached, Challenges for the 21st Century. 22nd WEDC Conferencs, 283–285.Google Scholar
  15. Murphy, H., McBean, E., & Farahbakhsh, K. (2010). Nitrification, denitrification and ammonification in point-of-use biosand filters in rural Cambodia. Journal of Water and Health, 8, 803–817.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Nakhla, G., & Farooq, S. (2003). Simultaneous nitrification–denitrification in slow sand filters. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 96, 291–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Oms, M. T., Cerda, A., & Cerda, V. (2000). Analysis of nitrates and nitrites. In L. M. L. Nollett (Ed.), Handbook of water analysis (p. 201). New York: Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
  18. Palmateer, G., Manz, D., Jurkovic, A., McInnis, R., Unger, S., Kwan, K. & Dutka, B. (1999). Toxicant and parasite challenge of Manz intermittent slow sand filter, Environmental Toxicology, 14: 217–225.Google Scholar
  19. Sobsey, M. D., Stauber, C. E., Casanova, L. M., Brown, J. M., & Elliott, M. A. (2008). Point of use household drinking water filtration: a practical, effective solution for providing sustained access to safe drinking water in the developing world. Environmental Science & Technology, 42, 4261–4267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Stauber, C., Elliott, M., Koksal, F., Ortiz, G., DiGiano, F. & Sobsey, M. (2006). ‘Characterisation of the biosand filter for E. coli reductions from household drinking water under controlled laboratory and field use conditions’, Water Science and Technology, 54 (3), 1–7.Google Scholar
  21. Stauber, C., Ortiz, G., Loomis, D. & Sobsey, M. (2009). ‘A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Concrete Blosand Filter and Its Impact on Diarrheal Disease in Bonao, Dominican Republic’, American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 80, 286–293.Google Scholar
  22. Stevik, T., Ausland, G., Jenssen, P. & Siegrist, R. (1999). ‘Removal of E-coli during intermittent filtration of wastewater effluent as affected by dosing rate and media type’, Water Research, 33 (9), 2088–2098.Google Scholar
  23. Stevik, T., Kari, A., Ausland, G., & Fredrik Hanssen, J. (2004). Retention and removal of pathogenic bacteria in wastewater percolating through porous media: a review. Water Research, 38, 1355–1367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Triple Quest. (2010). ‘Hydraid (R) BioSand Water Filter Installation Manual’. In C. Engineering (Ed.), Grand rapids (pp. 1–20). MI: Triple Quest.Google Scholar
  25. Vanderzwaag, J., Atwater, J., Bartlett, K., & Baker, D. (2009). Field evaluation of long-term performance and use of biosand filters in Posoltega, Nicaragua. Water Quality Research Journal of Canada, 44, 111–121.Google Scholar
  26. WHO. (2006). Meeting the MDG drinking-water and sanitation target: the urban and rural challenge of the decade. Geneva: WHO and Unicef.Google Scholar
  27. WHO. (2011). Guidelines for drinking-water quality (p. 515). Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. J. Kennedy
    • 1
  • E. A. Hernandez
    • 1
  • A. N. Morse
    • 1
  • T. A. Anderson
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringTexas Tech UniversityLubbockUSA
  2. 2.The Institute of Environmental and Human Health (TIEHH), Department of Environmental ToxicologyTexas Tech UniversityLubbockUSA

Personalised recommendations