Toxicological Effects of Three Polybromodiphenyl Ethers (BDE-47, BDE-99 and BDE-154) on Growth of Marine Algae Isochrysis galbana
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Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are highly persistent anthropogenic contaminants found in trace amounts in many environmental compartments far from their source areas, posing a risk to aquatic ecosystems. Our objective was to determine the relative toxicities of three BDEs, BDE-47, BDE-99 and BDE-154 on marine phytoplankton algae Isochrysis galbana. For a highly sensitive endpoint: the 72-h inhibition of autotrophic growth rate was calculated according to standards methods. Actual PBDE concentration was measured by GC-MS and toxicity parameters were calculated on the basis of time-weighted mean actual concentrations. No observable effect concentration (NOEC) values were 2.53 μg L−1 for BDE-47, 3.48 μg L−1 for BDE-99 and 12.3 μg L−1 for BDE-154, and LOEC values were 5.06, 6.96 and 24.60 μg L−1 for BDE-47, BDE-99 and BDE-154, respectively. The calculated IC10 (the concentration inhibiting growth rate by 10 %) corresponded to 9.3, 12.78 and 54.6 μg L−1 for BDE-47, BDE-99 and BDE-154, respectively. The 50 % inhibitions of growth rate (IC50) values were: 25.7 μg L−1 BDE-47, 30.0 μg L−1 BDE-99 and 243.7 μg L−1 BDE-154. Therefore, the acute toxicity of PBDEs decreases as the degree of bromination increases, the order of toxicity is BDE-47 > BDE-99 > BDE-154. Significant (p < 0.05) adverse effects were observed for all compounds at concentrations >15 μg L−1. Our results indicated that under laboratory conditions PBDEs inhibited the growth of marine phytoplankton at concentrations near 10 μg L−1. However, further work is required to investigate long-term effects in these and other aquatic organisms.
KeywordsPBDEs Toxicity Isochrysis galbana Bioassay Growth rate inhibition
The authors gratefully acknowledge the cooperation of all the workers and personnel at the ECIMAT and Laboratory of Marine ecology. We would like to express our warmest thanks to Ms. Alexandra Barciela Pereira and Ms. Nuria Trigo Sampedro for their technical assistance. We extend our thanks to Sara Pérez and Diego Rial. This study was financially supported by MAE-PCI (Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Spain), Ministry of Higher Education, Scientific Research and Technology in Tunisia and Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (MCINN) through the research project ref. CTM2009-10908 Environmental Quality Criteria for Marine Ecosystems (ENVICRISYS).
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