Advertisement

Water, Air, & Soil Pollution

, Volume 223, Issue 5, pp 2751–2770 | Cite as

Environmental Impacts of Chemicals for Snow and Ice Control: State of the Knowledge

  • Laura Fay
  • Xianming ShiEmail author
Article

Abstract

As chemicals are widely used for snow and ice control of highway and airfield pavements or aircrafts, recent years have seen increased concerns over their potentially detrimental effects on the surrounding environment. The abrasives used for winter operations on pavements are also a cause of environmental concerns. After some background information, this paper presents a review of the environmental impacts of chemicals used for snow and ice control, including those on: surface, ground, and drinking waters; soil; flora; and fauna. The paper provides a state-of-the-art survey of published work (with a focus on those in the last two decades) and examines mainly the impacts of abrasives, chlorides, acetates and formates, urea, glycols, and agro-based deicers. Finally, we conclude with a brief discussion of public perception of such impacts and best management practices (BMPs) to mitigate them.

Keywords

Snow and ice control Abrasives Deicers Chlorides Acetates Formates Glycols Environmental impacts 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge the financial support by the Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT) and the U.S. DOT Research and Innovative Technology Administration that made this work possible. We appreciate the guidance and insights provided by the CDOT project manager and technical panel members for the alternative deicer evaluation project, which contains the work presented herein as an integral component. We are also thankful for the assistance provided by our former colleague Marijean M. Peterson in editing this manuscript.

Supplementary material

11270_2011_1064_MOESM1_ESM.doc (70 kb)
ESM 1 (DOC 70 kb)

References

  1. Albright, M., (2003). Changes in water quality in an urban stream following the use of organically derived deicing products. State University of New York, College at Oneonta.Google Scholar
  2. Albright, M. (2005). Changes in water quality in an urban stream following the use of organically derived deicing products. Lake and Reservior Management, 21(1), 119–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bäckman, L., Folkeson, L. (1996). Influence of deicing salt on vegetation, groundwater, and soil along two highways in Sweden. In: Transportation Research Board (Ed.), Proc. 4th Intl. Symposium on Snow Removal and Ice Control Technology, August 11–16Google Scholar
  4. Bang, S. S., & Johnston, D. (1998). Environmental effects of sodium acetate/formate deicer, Ice Shear™. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 35, 580–587.Google Scholar
  5. Baroga, E. V. (2005). 2002-2004 Salt Pilot Project. Final Report for the Washington State Department of Transportation.Google Scholar
  6. Benbow, M. E., & Merritt, R. W. (2004). Road-salt toxicity of select Michigan wetland macroinvertebrates under different testing conditions. Wetlands, 24(1), 68–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brandt, G. H. (1973). Potential impact of sodium chloride and calcium chloride de-icing mixtures on roadside soils and plants with discussions. Highway Research Record, 425, 52–66.Google Scholar
  8. Bryson, G. M., & Barker, A. V. (2002). Sodium accumulation in soils and plants along Massachusetts roadsides. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 33(1–2), 67–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Buckler, D. R., Granato, G. E., (1999). Assessing biological effects from highway runoff constituents. U.S. Department of Interior and U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 99–240.Google Scholar
  10. Burkett, A., Gurr, N., (2004). Icy roads management with calcium magnesium acetate to meet environmental and customer expectations in New Zealand. In: Transportation Research Board (Ed.), Proc. 6th Intl. Symposium on Snow Removal and Ice Control Technology. Transportation Research Circular E-C063: Snow and Ice Control Technology. SNOW04-050, 267–277.Google Scholar
  11. Buttle, J. M., & Labadia, C. (1999). Deicing salt accumulation and loss in highway snow banks. Journal of Environmental Quality, 28(1), 155–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cancilla, D. A., Baird, J. C., Geis, S. W., & Corsi, S. R. (2003). Studies of the environmental fate and effect of aircraft deicing fluids: detection of 5-methyl-1H-bensotriazole in the fat head minnow (Pimephales promelas). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 22(1), 134–140.Google Scholar
  13. CDOT. (2002). Colorado Department of Transportation, Invitation for Bid, Deicer Specifications, Appendix B, Bid No. HAA02-087MM.Google Scholar
  14. Cekstere, G., Nikodemus, O., & Osvalde, A. (2008). Toxic impact of the de-icing material to street greenery in Riga, Latvia. Urban For Urban Gree, 7(3), 207–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chang, N., Brady, B., Oncul, F., Gottschalk, T., Gleason, E., Oravez, D., Lee, K., Palani, M., (2002). Cost of sanding. Colorado Department of Transportation—Research Branch. Report number CDOT-DTD-R-2002-5.Google Scholar
  16. Chappelow, C. C., McElroy, A. D., Blackburn, R. R., Darwin, D., de Noyelles, F. G., & Locke, C. E. (1992). Handbook of test methods for evaluating chemical deicers. Strategic Highway Research Program, Report No. SHRP-H-332. Washington DC: National Research Council.Google Scholar
  17. Cheng, K. C., Guthrie, T. F., (1998). Liquid road deicing environment impact. Levelton Engineering Ltd., Richmond, BC. Prepared for the Insurance Corporation of British Columbia, File number 498-0670.Google Scholar
  18. Cohn, M. M., & Fleming, R. R. (1974). Managing snow and ice control programs. Special Report No. 42. Chicago: American Public Works Association.Google Scholar
  19. Corsi, S. R., Booth, N. L., & Hall, D. W. (2001). Aircraft and runway deicers at General Mitchell International Airport, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. 1. Biochemical oxygen demand and dissolved oxygen in receiving streams. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 20(7), 1474–1482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Corsi, S. R., Geis, S. W., Loyo-Rosales, J. E., & Rice, C. P. (2006). Aquatic toxicity of nine aircraft deicer and anti-icier formulations and relative toxicity of additive package ingredients alkylphenol ethoxylates and 4,5-methol-1H-benzotriazoles. Environmental Science and Technology, 40(23), 7409–7415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cunningham, M. A., Snyder, E., Yonkin, D., Ross, M., & Elsen, T. (2008). Accumulation of deicing salts in soils in an urban environment. Urban Ecosystems, 11(1), 17–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Defourny, C. (2000). Environmental risk assessment of deicing salts. 8th World Salt Symposium, The Hague, Netherlands 2:767–770.Google Scholar
  23. Denich, C., Bradford, A., (2009). Cold climate issues for bioretention: assessing of salt and aggregate application on plant media clogging, and groundwater quality. In: Proceedings of the 2008 International Low Impact Conference 333:1–10.Google Scholar
  24. D'Itri, F. M. (1992). Chemical deicers and the environment. Boca Raton: Lewis Publishers.Google Scholar
  25. Dochinger, L. S., & Townsend, A. M. (1979). Effects of roadside deicer salts and ozone on red maple progenies. Environmental Pollution, 19(3), 229–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Environment Canada, (2000). Canadian environmental protection act, 1999 Priority substance list assessment report—road salts. Draft for Public Comments.Google Scholar
  27. Environment Canada, (2004). Code of practice for the environmental management of road salts. EPS 1/CC/5.Google Scholar
  28. Environment Canada, (2010). Risk management strategy for road salts, http://www.ec.gc.ca/nopp/roadsalt/reports/en/rms.cfm, last accessed on February 8, 2010.
  29. EPA, (2006a). 2000 national water quality inventory. U.S. environmental protection agency. http://www.epa.gov/305b/2000report/, last accessed on February 5, 2010.
  30. EPA, 2006b. Secondary drinking water regulations: guidance for nuisance chemicals. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. http://www.epa.gov/safewater/consumer/2ndstandards.html, last accessed on February 5, 2010.
  31. EPA, (2010). Environmental protection agency, U.S. environmental protection agency. http://www.epa.gov/ogwdw000/ccl/sodium.html, last accessed on February 8, 2010.
  32. Eppard, R. A., Norberg, J. W., Nelson, R. J., & Allison, J. (1992). Effects of deicing salt on overstory vegetation in the Lake Tahoe basin. Transportation Research Record, 1352, 67–74.Google Scholar
  33. Erhart, E., & Hartl, W. (2000). Effects of potassium carbonate as an alternative de-icer on ground vegetation and soil. Annals of Applied Biology, 136(3), 281–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fay, L., Shi, X., Volkening, K., Peterson, M. M., (2008). Laboratory evaluation of alternative deicers: the path to decision-making based on science and agency priorities. In: Transportation Research Board (Ed.), 88th TRB Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers DVD, Washington D.C. Paper number 09–2817.Google Scholar
  35. FHWA. (2002). Corrosion costs and preventative strategies in the United States, Publication No. FHWA-RD-01-156. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration.Google Scholar
  36. Fischel, M., (2001). Evaluation of selected deicers based on a review of the literature, Colorado Department of Transportation. Report No. CDOT-DTD-R-2001-15.Google Scholar
  37. Fitch, G. M., & Rossevelt, D. S. (2000). Environmental implications of the use of “Ice Ban” as a prewetting agent for sodium chloride. Transportation Research Record, 1700, 32–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Forman, R. T. T., Sperling, D., Bissonette, J. A., Clevenger, A. P., Cutshall, C. D., Dale, V. H., Fahrig, L., France, R., Goldman, C. R., Heanue, K., Jones, J. A., Swanson, F. J., Turrentine, T., & Winter, T. C. (2003). Road ecology—science and solutions. Washington: Island Press.Google Scholar
  39. Fritzsche, C. J. (1992). Calcium magnesium acetate deicer: an effective alternative for salt-sensitive areas. Water Environment and Technology WAETEJ, 4(1), 44–51.Google Scholar
  40. Gidley, J. L., (1990). The impact of deicing salts on roadside vegetation on two sites in California, in Goldman, C. R., and Malyj, G. J., (eds.) The environmental impact of highway deicing. Proceedings of a symposium held October 13, 1989 at the University of California, Davis Campus: Institute of Ecology, no. 33, p. 20–48.Google Scholar
  41. Godwin, K. S., Hafner, S. D., & Buff, M. F. (2005). Long-term trends in sodium and chloride in the Mohawk River, New York: the effect of fifty years of road salt application. Environmental Pollution, 124(2), 273–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Green, S. M., Machin, R., & Cresser, M. S. (2008). Effect of long-term changes in soil chemistry induced by road salt applications on N-transformation in roadside soils. Environmental Pollution, 152(1), 20–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hallberg S.-E., Gustafsson, A., Johansson, A., Thunqvist, E.-L., (2007). Anti-skid treatment tests with glucose/fructose/unrefined Sugar. In: Proceedings of the Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting. Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  44. Hartwell, S. I., Jordahl, M. D., Evans, J. E., & May, E. B. (1995). Toxicity of aircraft deicers and antiicer solutions to aquatic organisms. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 14(8), 1375–1386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hawkins, R. H. (1971). Proceedings: street salting, urban water quality workshop. Syracuse: State University College of Forestry.Google Scholar
  46. Health Canada. (1996). Guidelines for Canadian drinking water quality—6th edition. (http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/pubs/water-eau/guidelines_sixth-rec-eng.php)
  47. Hellsten, P. P., Kivimaki, A.-L., Miettinen, I. T., Makinen, R. P., Salminen, J. M., & Nysten, T. H. (2005). Degradation of potassium formate in the unsaturated zone of a sandy aquifer. Journal of Environmental Quality, 34, 1665–1671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hellsten, P. P., Salminen, J. M., Jorgensen, K. S., & Nysten, T. H. (2005). Use of potassium formate in winter road deicing can reduce groundwater deterioration. Environmental Science and Technology, 39(13), 5095–5100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hofstra, G., & Smith, D. W. (1984). The effects of road deicing salt on the level of ions in roadside soils in Southern Ontario. Journal of Environmental Management, 19, 261–271.Google Scholar
  50. Horner, R. R., & Brener, M. V. (1992). Environmental evaluation of calcium magnesium acetate for highway deicing applications. Resource Conservation & Recycling, 7, 213–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Howard, K. W. F., & Maier, H. (2007). Road de-icing salt as a potential constraint on urban growth in the Greater Toronto Area. Canadian Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 91, 146–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Johnson, J. J., Varney, N., Switzenbaum, H. S., (2001). Comparative toxicity of formulated glycol deicers and pure ethylene and propylene glycol. Water Resource Research Center, University of Massachusetts at Amherst. http://www.umass.edu/tei/wrrc/WRRC2004/pdf/no.174.pdf#search=%22enviornmental%2C%20glycol%20deicer%22, last accessed on January 22, 2010.
  53. Jones, P. H., Jeffrey, B. A., Watler, P. K., & Hutchon, H. (1992). Environmental impact of road salting. In F. M. D'Itri (Ed.), Chemical deicers and the environment (pp. 1–116). Boca Raton: Lewis Publishers.Google Scholar
  54. Kahl, S., (2004). Agricultural by-products for anti-icing and de-icing use in Michigan. In: Transportation Research Board (Ed.), Proc. 6th Intl. Symposium on Snow Removal and Ice Control Technology. Transportation Research Circular E-C063: Snow and Ice Control Technology. SNOW04-009, 552–555.Google Scholar
  55. Karraker, N. E., Gibbs, J. P., & Vonesh, J. R. (2008). Impacts of road deicing salt on the demography of vernal pool-breeding amphibians. Ecological Applications, 18(3), 724–734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kaushall, S., Groffman, P., Likens, G., Belt, K., Stack, W., Kelly, V., Band, L., & Fisher, G. (2005). Increased salinization of freshwater in the Northeastern United States. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 102(38), 13517–13520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kawasaki, T., Akiba, T., & Moritsugu, M. (1983). Effects of high concentrations of sodium chloride and polyethylene glycol on the growth and ion absorption in plants. Plant and Soil, 75(1), 75–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Keating, J., (2001). De-icing salt, still on the table. Stormwater. 2(4). http://www.stormh2o.com/may-june-2001/sodium-chloride-salt.aspx, last accessed on January 20, 2010.
  59. Kent, R. A., Andersen, D., Caux, P.-Y., & Teed, S. (1999). Canadian water quality guidelines for glycols—an ecotoxicological review of glycols and associated aircraft anti-icing and deicing fluids. Environmental Toxicology, 14, 481–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Ketcham, S. A., Minsk, L. D., Blackburn, R. R., Fleege, E. J., (1996). Manual of practice for an effective anti-icing program: a guide for highway winter maintenance personnel. Publication No. FHWA-RD-9-202. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory.Google Scholar
  61. Kincaid, D. W., & Findlay, S. E. G. (2009). Sources of elevated chloride in local streams: groundwater and soils as potential reservoirs. Water, Air & Soil Pollution, 203(1–4), 335–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. LaPerriere, J. D., & Rea, C. L. (1989). Effects of calcium magnesium acetate deicer on small ponds in interior Alaska. Lake and Reservoir Management, 5(2), 49–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lax, S., & Peterson, E. W. (2009). Characterization of chloride transport in the unsaturated zone near salted road. Environmental Geology, 58(5), 1041–1049.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Leggett, T. S., (1999). Temperature and humidity effects on the co-efficient of friction value after application of liquid anti-icing chemicals.Google Scholar
  65. Levelton Consultants Limited, (2007). Guidelines for the selection of snow and ice control materials to mitigate environmental impacts. NCHRP Report 577. National Research Council, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  66. Lewis, W. L. Jr, (1999). Studies of environmental effects of magnesium chloride deicer in Colorado. Final Report for the Colorado Department of Transportation.Google Scholar
  67. Mason, C. F., Norton, S. A., Fernandez, I. J., & Katz, L. E. (1999). Deconstruction of the chemical effects of road salt on stream water chemistry. Environmental Quality, 28(1), 82–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Mayer, T., Snodgrass, W. J., & Morin, D. (1999). Spatial characterization of the occurrence of road salts and their environmental concentrations as chlorides in Canadian surface waters and Benthic sediments. Water Quality Research Journal of Canada, 34(4), 545–574.Google Scholar
  69. McFarland, B. L., O'Reilly, K. T., (1992). Environmental impact and toxicological characteristics of calcium magnesium acetate. In F. M. D'Itri (Ed.), Chemical deicers and the environment (pp. 117–133). Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL. Chemical Deicers and the EnvironmentGoogle Scholar
  70. McLaughlin, W. J. (2009). Modeling of aircraft deicing fluid induced biochemical oxygen demand in subsurface-flow constructed treatment wetlands. Master's thesis in Engineering Management. Ohio: Air Force Institute of Technology, Air University.Google Scholar
  71. Menzies, T. R. (1992). National cost of motor vehicle corrosion from deicing salt. In R. Baboian (Ed.), Proceedings of the CORROSION/91 Symposium “Automotive Corrosion and Protection” (pp. 1–11). Houston: NACE International.Google Scholar
  72. Mericas, D., Ajello, T. B., Lengel Jr., J. A., Longsworth, J., (2009). Deicing planning guidelines and practices for stormwater management systems. ACRP Report 14. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_rpt_014.pdf, last accessed on February 15, 2010.
  73. Miklovic, S., & Galatowitsch, S. (2005). Effect of NaCl and Typha angustifolia L. on marsh community establishment: a greenhouse study. Wetlands, 24(2), 420–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Munck, I. A., Nowak, R. S., Camilli, K., & Bennett, C. (2009). Long-term impacts of de-icing salts on roadside trees in the Lake Tahoe Basin. Phytopathology, 99(6), S91.Google Scholar
  75. NDOT. (1990). Roadside erosion control and revegetation needs associated with the use of deicing salt within the Lake Tahoe Basin. Carson City: Nevada Department of Transportation.Google Scholar
  76. Nelson, S. S., Yonge, D. R., & Barber, M. E. (2009). Effects of road salts on heavy metal mobility in two eastern Washington soils. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 135(7), 505–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Nixon, W. A., (2001). The use of abrasives in winter maintenance: final report of project TR 434, IIHR Technical Report No. 416.Google Scholar
  78. Nixon, W. A., Williams, A. D., (2001). A guide for selecting anti-icing chemicals. Version 1.0. IIHR Technical Report No. 420.Google Scholar
  79. O'Keefe, K., Shi, X., (2006). Anti-icing and pre-wetting: improved methods for winter highway maintenance in North America. In: Transportation Research Board (Ed.), TRB 85th Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers DVD, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  80. Pacific Northwest Snowfighters Association, (2006). Snow and ice chemical product specifications and test protocols for the PNS Association of British Columbia, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington. http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/partners/pns/pdf/4-06FinalPNSSPECS.pdf, last accessed on February 5, 2010.
  81. PNSA. (2010). Pacific Northwest Snow Fighters (PNS) Qualified product list. http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/partners/pns/pdf/PNSQPL.pdf, last accessed on February 8, 2010.
  82. Pan, T., He, X., & Shi, X. (2008). Laboratory investigation of acetate-based deicing/anti-icing agents deteriorating airfield asphalt concrete. Journal of Association of Asphalt Paving Technologist, 77, 773–793.Google Scholar
  83. Parker, D. (1997). Alternative snow and ice control methods: field evaluation. Federal Highway Administration. FHWA-OR-RD-98-03. Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  84. Paschka, M. G., Ghosh, R. S., & Dzombak, D. A. (1999). Potential water-quality effects from iron cyanide anticaking agents in road salt. Water Environment Research, 71(6), 1235–1239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Perchanok, M. S., Manning, D. G., Armstrong, J. J., (1991). Highway de-Icers: standards, practices, and research in the Province of Ontario. Research and Development Branch MOT. Mat-91-13.Google Scholar
  86. Public Sector Consultants, (1993). The use of selected de-icing materials on Michigan roads: environmental and economic impacts. Prepared for the Michigan Department of Transportation. http://www.michigan.gov/mdot/0,1607,7-151-9622_11045-57246--,00.html, last accessed on January 19, 2010.
  87. Ramakrishna, D. M., & Viraraghavan, T. (2005). Environmental impact of chemical deicers—a review. Water, Air & Soil Pollution, 166, 49–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Rice, P. J., Anderson, T. A., & Coats, J. R. (1997). Evaluation of the use of vegetation for reducing the environmental impacts of deicing agents. In E. L. Kruger, T. A. Anderson, & J. R. Coats (Eds.), Phytoremediation of soil and water contaminants (pp. 162–185). Washington DC: American Chemical Society Symposium Series 664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Ritter, S., (2001). What is that stuff? Aircraft deicers. CENEAR, 79(1), 30. http://pubs.acs.org/cen/whatstuff/stuff/7901scit5.html, last accessed on January 20, 2010.
  90. Robidoux, P. Y., & Delisle, C. E. (2001). Ecotoxicological evaluation of three deicers (NaCl, NaFo, CMA)—effect on terrestrial organisms. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 48(2), 128–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Roth, D., & Wall, G. (1976). Environmental effects of highway deicing salts. Ground Water, 14(5), 286–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Salt Institute, (2007). Snowfighters handbook, a practical guide for snow and ice control. 40th edition. (http://www.saltinstitute.org/content/download/484/2996)
  93. Schulte, E. E., Kelling, K. A., (2004). Understanding plant nutrients: soil and applied calcium (A2523) (http://www.soils.wisc.edu/extension/pubs/A2523.pdf), soil and applied magnesium (A2524) (http://www.soils.wisc.edu/extension/pubs/A2524.pdf), soil and applied potassium (A2521) (http://www.soils.wisc.edu/extension/pubs/A2521.pdf); last accessed on January 20, 2010.
  94. Shi, X. (2005). The use of road salts for highway winter maintenance: an asset management perspective. ITE District 6 Annual Meeting. Kalispell, Montana. July 10–13, 2005.Google Scholar
  95. Shi, X. (2008). Impact of airport pavement deicing products on aircraft and airfield infrastructure. ACRP Synthesis 6. Airport Cooperative Research Program, Transportation Research Board, National Academies, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  96. Shi, X., Fay, L., Gallaway, C., Volkening, K., Peterson, M. M., Pan, T., Creighton, A., Lawlor, C., Mumma, S., Liu, Y., Nguyen, T.A., 2009a. Evaluation of alternate anti-icing and deicing compounds using sodium chloride and magnesium chloride as baseline deicers. Final Report for the Colorado Department of Transportation. Denver, CO. Report No. CDOT-2009-01.Google Scholar
  97. Shi, X., Fay, L., Yang, Z., Nguyen, T. A., & Liu, Y. (2009). Corrosion of deicers to metals in transportation infrastructure: introduction and recent developments. Corrosion Reviews, 27(1–2), 23–52.Google Scholar
  98. Shi, X., Akin, M., Pan, T., Fay, L., Liu, Y., & Yang, Z. (2009). Deicer impacts on pavement materials: introduction and recent developments. Open Civil Engineering Journal, 3, 16–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Silver, P., Rupprecht, S. M., & Stauffer, M. F. (2009). Temperature-dependent effects of road deicing salt on chironomid larvae. Wetlands, 29(3), 942–951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Sorenson, D. L., Mortenson, V., & Zollinger, R. L. (1996). A review and synthesis of the impacts of road salting on water quality. Utah Department of Transportation Final Report UT-95.08.Google Scholar
  101. Staples, J. M., Gamradt, L., Stein, O., Shi, X., (2004). Recommendations for winter traction materials management on roadways adjacent to bodies of water. Montana Department of Transportation. FHWA/MT-04-008/8117-19. http://www.mdt.mt.gov/research/docs/research_proj/traction/final_report.pdf, last accessed on Dec. 5, 2009.
  102. Stevens, M. R., (2001). Assessment of water quality, road runoff, and bulk atmospheric deposition, Guanella Pass area, Clear Creek and Park Counties Colorado, water years 1995–97. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 00–4186.Google Scholar
  103. Strong, J. E., & Amrhein, C. (1990). Effects of deicing salts on trace metal mobility in roadside soils. Journal of Environmental Quality, 19(4), 765–772.Google Scholar
  104. Sucoff, E., (1975a). Effect of deicing salts on woody vegetation along Minnesota roads. Minnesota Highway Department Investigation 636. Final Report. Saint Paul.Google Scholar
  105. Sucoff, E., (1975b). Effects of deicing salts on woody vegetation along Minnesota roads. Minn. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bul. 303.Google Scholar
  106. Taylor, P., Verkade, J., Gopalaakrishnan, K., Wadhwa, K., Kim, S., (2010). Development of an improved agricultural-based deicing product. Institute for Transportation, Iowa State University.Google Scholar
  107. Thunqvist, E.-L. (2004). Regional increase of mean chloride concentration in water due to the application of deicing salt. Science of the Total Environment, 325, 29–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Trahan, N. A., Peterson, C. M., (2007). Factors impacting the health of roadside vegetation, final report prepared for Colorado Department of Transportation, Report No. CDOT-DTD-R-2005-12.Google Scholar
  109. Trahan, N. A., Peterson, C. M., (2008). Impacts of magnesium chloride-based deicers on roadside vegetation. In: Transportation Research Board (Ed.), Proc. 6th Intl. Symposium on Snow Removal and Ice Control Technology. Transportation Research Circular E-C126. SNOW08-050, 171–186.Google Scholar
  110. Transportation Association of Canada, (2004). www.tac-atc.ca, last accessed on December 5, 2009.
  111. TRB, (1991). Highway deicing, comparing salt and calcium magnesium acetate, Special Report 235, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  112. Turnbull, D. A., & Bevan, J. R. (1995). The impact of airport deicing on a river, The case of the Ouseburn, New castle upon Tyne. Environmental Pollution, 88(3), 321–332.Google Scholar
  113. U.S. Navy. Substitution and Recycling of Air Craft Deicing Products. http://www.p2pays.org/ref/20/19926/P2_Opportunity_Handbook/6_I_7.html, last accessed on February 9, 2010.
  114. Vitaliano, D. (1992). Economic assessment of the social costs of highway salting and the efficiency of substituting a new deicing material. Jounal of Policy Analysis Managemant, 11(3), 397–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Warrington, P. D., (1998). Roadsalt and winter maintenance for British Columbia municipalities: best management practices to protect water quality. Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection. http://www.env.gov.bc.ca/wat/wq/bmps/roadsalt.html, last accessed on January 19, 2010.
  116. Watson, L. R., Bayless, E. R., Buszka, P. M., Wilson, J. T., (2002). Effects of highway-deicer application on ground-water quality in a part of the Calumet Aquifer, Northwestern Indiana. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 01–4260.Google Scholar
  117. Wegner W., Yaggi, M., 2001. Environmental impacts of road salt and alternatives in the New York City Watershed. Stormwater 2(5). http://www.stormh2o.com/july-august-2001/salt-road-environmental-impacts.aspx, last accessed on January 19, 2010.
  118. Williams, D., (2001). Past and current practices of winter maintenance at the Montana Department of Transportation (MDT). http://www.mdt.mt.gov/publications/docs/brochures/winter_maint/wintmaint_whitepaper.pdf, last accessed on February 8, 2010.
  119. Yehia, S., Tuan, Y., (1998). Bridge deck deicing, In: Crossroads 2000–1998 Transportation Conference Proceedings, Iowa State University.Google Scholar
  120. Yonge, D., Marcoe, N., (2001). An evaluation of the impacts of highway deicers on Peshastin Creek. Washington State Transportation Center Research Report T1804-2.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Corrosion & Sustainable Infrastructure Laboratory, Western Transportation InstituteMontana State UniversityBozemanUSA
  2. 2.Civil Engineering DepartmentMontana State UniversityBozemanUSA

Personalised recommendations