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Water, Air, & Soil Pollution

, Volume 223, Issue 5, pp 2373–2386 | Cite as

Ion Exchange Treatment of Groundwater Contaminated by Arsenic in the Presence of Sulphate. Breakthrough Experiments and Modeling

  • Agostina ChiavolaEmail author
  • Emilio D’Amato
  • Renato Baciocchi
Article

Abstract

This report deals with the application of ion exchange columns to the treatment of groundwater contaminated by high concentrations of arsenic in the presence of sulphates. Two different process layouts were tested, based on the use of a single column and of two-in-series columns, respectively. Several breakthrough tests were performed, where the effect of the operating parameters, as the influent flow rate, the packed bed height and the feed water composition, were investigated. The collected data were described using three different modeling approaches, based on the Bohart–Adams, Yan and Thomas models, respectively. These models were all found to describe the experimental data with a quite good agreement (based on the R 2 value). The ion exchange capacity evaluated by the models (about 3.8 mEq/g) was comparable with the value provided by the supplier (3.8 mEq/g), but higher than the value determined through batch tests of a previous study by the same authors. The models were then successfully applied to describe the breakthrough behaviour of the two in-series column plant using a real feed contaminated by high arsenic concentrations in the presence of sulphate.

Keywords

Arsenic Breakthrough Column plant Exhaustion Ion exchange resin Sulphates 

Abbreviations

As

Arsenic

As(V)

Pentavalent arsenic

As(III)

Trivalent arsenic

MAC

Maximum admissible concentration

IE

Ion exchange

BKT

Breakthrough

EX

Exhaustion

t

Time (h)

Ct

Effluent concentration (mg/l or μg/l)

C0

Influent concentration (mg/l or μg/l)

Vb

Bed volume (ml)

Wb

Weight of bed resin (mg)

Q

Influent flow rate (ml/min)

EBCT

Empty bed contact time (min)

qIE

Resin uptake capacity (mg)

qIN

Total amount of arsenic fed to the column at time t (mg)

R%

Total ion removal (%)

T

Temperature (°C)

F1 and F2

Real feed waters

BDST

Bed depth-service-time

kBA

Bohart–Adams rate constant (l/h mg)

Z

Bed depth (m)

N0

Maximum solid phase capacity per unit volume of bed (mg/l)

μ

Superficial liquid velocity (m/h)

A

Cross section surface of the resin bed (m2)

qBA

Maximum solid phase capacity per unit weight of bed estimated by the Bohart–Adams model (mg/g)

kT

Thomas rate constant (l/h mg)

qT

Maximum solid phase capacity per unit weight of bed estimated by the Thomas model (mg/g)

V

Throughput volume (l)

amdr

Modified dose–response model constant (unit-less)

tBKT

BKT time (min)

tEX

EX time (min)

ER%

Efficiency of the regeneration phase (%)

SO4(theo)

Expected sulphates in the spent brine solution (mg/l)

SO4(exp)

Measured sulphates in the spent brine solution (mg/l)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Agostina Chiavola
    • 1
    Email author
  • Emilio D’Amato
    • 2
  • Renato Baciocchi
    • 3
  1. 1.Faculty of Engineering, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Edile e AmbientaleSapienza University of RomeRomeItaly
  2. 2.Faculty of Engineering, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e AmbientaleUniversity of FlorenceFlorenceItaly
  3. 3.Faculty of Engineering, Dipartimento di Ingegneria CivileUniversity of Rome Tor VergataRomeItaly

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