Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

The Bioaccumulation Performance of Reeds and Cattails in a Constructed Treatment Wetland for Removal of Heavy Metals in Landfill Leachate Treatment (Etueffont, France)

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the capacities of cattail (Typha latifolia L.) and reed (Phragmites australis L.) for heavy metal storage in the phytomass. Samples were studied in the fourth of the four interconnected natural lagooning basins of a constructed treatment wetland, developed as an integrated pilot system for the treatment of leachates in a domestic landfill site at Etueffont (Territoire de Belfort, France). The efficiency of the lagooning system was evaluated through physical and chemical parameter measurements over a period of three seasons. Anion/cation and heavy metal concentrations were sampled and analyzed in water flowing into and out of the lagooning basin. Simultaneously, reed and cattail biomass samples (roots/rhizomes, shoots) were collected at both inflow and outflow, and the biomass characteristics were determined. The average above-ground biomass of T. latifolia and P. australis varied, respectively, from 0.41 to 1.81 kg DW m−2 in the fall, 0.31 to 1.34 kg DW m−2 in winter, and 0.38 to 1.68 kg DW m−2 in spring, with significant seasonal variations. The greatest mean concentrations of heavy metals were found in the below-ground plant parts of the two species during the spring season. The average standing stock of heavy metals was higher in the below-ground than in the above-ground phytomass, whatever the season. With the exception of nickel, heavy metal concentrations in the inflow were correlated to the plant content of both species.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5

References

  1. Aksoy, A., Duman, F., & Sezen, G. (2005). Heavy metal accumulation and distribution in narrow-leaved cattail (Typha angustifolia) and common reed (Phragmites australis). Freshwater Ecology, 20, 783–785.

  2. Blaky, N. C. (1992). Model prediction of landfill leachate production. London: Elsevier Applied Science.

  3. Bonanno, G., & Lo Giudice, R. (2010). Heavy metal bioaccumulation by the organs of Phragmites australis (common reed) and their potential use as contamination indicators. Ecological Indicators, 10, 639–645.

  4. Bookter, T. J. B., & Ham, R. (1982). Decomposition of solid waste in test lysimeters. Journal Environmental Engineering Division ASCE, 108, 1147–1170.

  5. Bragato, C., Brix, H., & Malagoli, M. (2006). Accumulation of nutrients and heavy metals in Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steudel and Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla in a constructed wetland of the Venice lagoon watershed. Environmental Pollution, 144, 967–975.

  6. Brown, S. L., Chaney, R. L., Angle, J. S., & Baker, A. J. M. (1994). Phytomediation potential of Thlaspi caerulescens and bladder campion for zinc- and cadmium-contaminated soil. Journal of Environmental Quality, 23, 1151–1157.

  7. Cardwell, A. J., Hawker, D. W., & Greenway, M. (2002). Metal accumulation in aquatic macrophytes from southeast Queensland, Australia. Chemosphere, 48, 653–663.

  8. Carranza-Alvarez, C., Alonso-Castro, A. J., Alfaro-De La Torre, M. C., & Garcia-De La Cruz, R. F. (2008). Accumulation and distribution of heavy metals in Scirpus americanus and Typha latifolia from an artificial lagoon in San Luis Potosí, México. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 188, 297–309.

  9. Demirezen, D., & Aksoy, A. (2004). Accumulation of heavy metals in Typha angustifolia (L.) and Potamogeton pectinatus (L.) living in Sultan Marsh (Kayseri, Turkey). Chemosphere, 56, 685–696.

  10. DIN ISO 11466. (1997). Soil quality—extraction of trace elements soluble in aqua regia. Geneva: ISO.

  11. Duman, F., Cicek, M., & Sezen, G. (2007). Seasonal changes of metal accumulation and distribution in common club rush (Schoenoplectus lacustris) and common reed (Phragmites australis). Ecotoxicology, 16, 457–463.

  12. Ennabili, A., Ater, M., & Radoux, M. (1998). Biomass production and NPK retention in macrophytes from wetlands of the Tingitan Peninsula. Aquatic Botany, 62, 45–56.

  13. Fernandez, J., & De Miguel, E. (2005). Results of LIFE-Environment project “Macrophytes”, executed in Lorca (Murcia, Spain). In: Fernandez, J., Cirujano, S., De Miguel, E. (Eds.), Proceeding of International Meeting on “Phytodepuration” (pp. 151–157). Lorca, Spain.

  14. Gray, S., Kinross, J., Read, P., & Marland, A. (2000). The nutrient assimilative capacity of maerl as a substrate in constructed wetland system for waste treatment. Water Research, 34, 2183–2190.

  15. Grisey, E., Belle, E., Dat, J., Mudry, J., & Aleya, L. (2010). Survival of pathogenic and indicator organisms in groundwater and landfill leachate through coupling bacterial enumeration with tracer tests. Desalination, 261, 162–168.

  16. Hardej, M., & Ozimek, T. (2002). The effect of sewage sludge flooding on growth and morphometric parameters of Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steudel. Ecological Engineering, 18, 343–350.

  17. Hocking, P. J. (1989a). Seasonal dynamics of production, and nutrient accumulation and cycling by Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steudel in a nutrient-enriched swamp in inland Australia. I. Whole plants. Australian Journal of Marine & Freshwater Research, 40, 421–444.

  18. Hocking, P. J. (1989b). Seasonal dynamics of production, and nutrient accumulation and cycling by Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steudel in a nutrient-enriched swamp in inland Australia. II. Individual shoots. Australian Journal of Marine & Freshwater Research, 40, 445–464.

  19. Kabata-Pendias, A., & Pendias, H. (2001). Trace elements in soils and plants. Boca Raton: CRC.

  20. Kadlec, R. H., & Knight, R. L. (1996). Treatment wetlands. Boca Raton: CRC.

  21. Karathanasis, A. D., Potter, C. L., & Coyne, M. S. (2003). Vegetation effects on fecal bacteria, BOD, and suspended solid removal in constructed wetlands treating domestic wastewater. Ecological Engineering, 20, 157–169.

  22. Karpiscak, M. M., Whiteaker, L. R., Artiola, J. F., & Foster, K. E. (2001). Nutrient and heavy metal uptake and storage in constructed wetland systems in Arizona. Water Science and Technology, 44, 455–462.

  23. Keller, B. E. M., Lajtha, K., & Cristofor, S. (1998). Trace metals concentration in the sediments and plants of the Danube delta, Romania. Wetlands, 40, 42–50.

  24. Khattabi, H., & Aleya, L. (2007). The dynamics of macro-invertebrate assemblages in response to environmental change in four basins of the Etueffont landfill leachate (Belfort, France). Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 185, 63–77.

  25. Khattabi, H., Aleya, L., & Mania, J. (2006). Spatio-temporal evolution and characterization of phytoplankton populations in landfill leachate treatment basins. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 174, 107–125.

  26. Khattabi, H., Belle, E., Servais, P., & Aleya, L. (2007). Temporal and spatial fluctuations in bacterial abundances in 4 basins of a landfill leachate treatment (Etueffont, France). Comptes Rendus Biologie, 330, 429–438.

  27. Kjeldsen, P., Barlaz, M. A., Rooker, A. P., Baun, A., Ledin, A., & Christensen, T. H. (2002). Present and long term composition of MSW landfill leachate. Environmental Science and Technology, 32, 297–336.

  28. Larsen, V. J., & Schierup, H. H. (1981). Macrophyte cycling of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in the littoral zone of a polluted and a non-polluted lake: Seasonal changes in heavy metal content of above-ground biomass and decomposing leaves of Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. Aquatic Botany, 11, 211–230.

  29. Lesage, E., Rousseau, D. P. L., Meers, E., Tack, F. M. G., & De Pauw, N. (2006). Accumulation of metals in the sediment and reed biomass of a combined constructed wetland treating domestic wastewater. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 183, 253–264.

  30. Lesage, E., Rousseau, D. P. L., Meers, E., Tack, F. M. G., & De Pauw, N. (2007). Accumulation of metals in a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland treating domestic wastewater in Flanders, Belgium. Science of the Total Environment, 380, 102–115.

  31. Liang, Y., & Wong, M. H. (2003). Spatial and temporal organic and heavy metal pollution at Mai Po Marshes Nature Reserve, Hong Kong. Chemosphere, 52, 1647–1658.

  32. Maddison, M., Soosaar, K., Mauring, T., & Mander, Ü. (2009). The biomass and nutrient and heavy metal content of cattails and reeds in wastewater treatment wetlands for the production of construction material in Estonia. Desalination, 246, 120–128.

  33. Mishra, V. K., Upadhyay, A. R., Pandey, S. K., & Tripathi, B. D. (2008). Concentrations of heavy metals and aquatic macrophytes of Govind Ballabh Pant Sagar an anthropogenic lake affected by coal mining effluent. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 141, 49–58.

  34. Obarska-Pempkowiak, H., & Klimkowska, K. (2000). Distribution of nutrients and heavy metals in a constructed wetland system. Chemosphere, 39, 303–312.

  35. Obarska-Pempkowiak, H., Haustein, E., & Wojciechowska, E. (2005). Distribution of heavy metals in vegetation of constructed wetlands in agricultural catchment. In J. Vymazal (Ed.), Natural and constructed wetlands: Nutrients, metals and management (pp. 125–134). Leiden: Backhuys.

  36. Peverly, J. H., Surface, J. M., & Wang, T. (1995). Growth and trace metal absorption by Phragmites australis in wetlands constructed for landfill leachate treatment. Ecological Engineering, 5, 21–35.

  37. Romero, J. A., Comin, F. A., & Garcia, C. (1999). Restored wetlands as filters to remove nitrogen. Chemosphere, 39, 323–332.

  38. Samecka-Cymerman, A., & Kempers, A. J. (2001). Concentrations of heavy metals and plants nutrients in water, sediments and aquatic macrophytes of anthropogenic lakes (former open cut brown coal mines) differing in stage of acidification. The Science of the Total Environment, 281, 87–98.

  39. Sasmaz, A., Obek, E., & Hasar, H. (2008). The accumulation of heavy metals in Typha latifolia L. grown in a stream carrying secondary effluent. Ecological Engineering, 33, 278–284.

  40. Schierup, H. H., & Larsen, V. J. (1981). Macrophyte cycling of zinc, copper, lead, and cadmium in the littoral zone of a polluted and a non-polluted lake. I. Availability, uptake and translocation of heavy metals in Phragmites australis. Aquatic Botany, 11, 197–210.

  41. Schwarzbauer, J., Heim, S., Brinker, S., & Littke, R. (2002). Occurrence and alteration of organic contaminants in seepage and leakage water from a waste deposit landfill. Water Research, 36, 2275–2287.

  42. Stoltz, E., & Greger, M. (2002). Accumulation properties of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn by four wetland plant species growing on submerged mine tailings. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 47, 271–280.

  43. Tanner, C. C. (1996). Plants for constructed wetland treatment systems, a comparison of the growth and nutrient uptake of eight emergent species. Ecological Engineering, 7, 59–83.

  44. Toet, S., Bouwman, M., Cevaal, A., & Verhoeven, J. T. A. (2005). Nutrient removal through autumn harvest of Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia shoots in relation to nutrient loading in a wetland system used for polishing sewage treatment plant effluent. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, 40, 1133–1156.

  45. VDLUFA. (1996). Methodenbuch, VII—Umweltanalytik. Bonn: Verband Deutscher landwirtschaftlicher Untersuchungs und Forschungsanstalten.

  46. Vymazal, J. (2004). Removal of phosphorus via harvesting of emergent vegetation in constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. In A. Liénard (Ed.), Proceedings of Ninth International Conference on “Wetland Systems for Water Pollution Control” (pp. 415–422). Paris: IWA and ASTEE.

  47. Vymazal, J., & Krása, P. (2003). Distribution of Mn, Al, Cu and Zn in a constructed wetland receiving municipal sewage. Water Science and Technology, 48, 299–305.

  48. Vymazal, J., & Kröpfelová, L. (2008). Is concentration of dissolved oxygen a good indicator of processes en filtration beds of horizontal-flow constructed wetlands? In J. Vymazal (Ed.), Wastewater treatment, plant dynamics and management in constructed and natural wetlands (pp. 311–317). Czech Republic: Springer.

  49. Vymazal, J., Svehla, J., Kröpfelovà, L., & Chrastny, V. (2007). Trace metals in Phragmites australis and Phalaris arundinacea growing in constructed and natural wetlands. Science of the Total Environment, 380, 154–162.

  50. Weis, J. S., & Weis, P. (2004). Metal uptake, transport and release by wetland plants: Implications for phytoremediation and restoration. Environment International, 30, 685–700.

  51. Weis, J. S., Glover, T., & Weis, P. (2004). Interactions of metals affect their distribution in tissues of Phragmites australis. Environmental Pollution, 13, 409–415.

  52. Wild, U., Kamp, T., Lenz, A., Heinz, S., & Pfadenhauer, J. (2002). Vegetation development, nutrient removal and trace gas fluxes in constructed Typha wetland. In U. Mander & P. Jenssen (Eds.), Natural wetlands for wastewater treatment in cold climates. Advances in ecological sciences, vol. 12 (pp. 101–126). Southampton: WIT.

  53. Windham, L., Wies, J. S., & Weis, P. (2001). Lead uptake, distribution, and effects in two dominant salt marsh macrophytes, Spartina alterniflora (cordgrass) and Phragmites australis (common reed). Marine Pollution Bulletin, 42, 811–816.

  54. Windham, L., Wies, J. S., & Weis, P. (2003). Uptake and distribution of metals in two dominant salt marsh macrophytes, Spartina alterniflora (cordgrass) and Phragmites australis (common reed). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 56, 63–72.

  55. Ye, Z. H., Baker, A. J., Wong, M. H., & Willis, A. J. (1997). Zinc, lead, and cadmium tolerance, uptake and accumulation by the common reed, Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steudel. Annals of Botany, 80, 363–370.

  56. Ye, Z. H., Baker, A. J. M., Wong, M. H., & Willis, A. J. (2003). Copper tolerance, uptake and accumulation by Phragmites australis. Chemosphere, 50, 795–800.

  57. Zayed, A., Gowthaman, S., & Terry, N. (1998). Phytoaccumulation of trace elements by wetland plants. I. Duckweed. Journal of Environmental Quality, 27, 715–721.

  58. Zhao, F. J., Hamon, R. E., Lombi, E., Mc Laughlin, M. J., & Mc Grath, S. P. (2002). Characteristics of cadmium uptake in two contrasting ecotypes of the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens. Journal of Experimental Botany, 53, 535–543.

  59. Zu, Y. Q., Li, Y., Chen, J. J., Chen, H. Y., Qin, L., & Schvartz, C. (2005). Hyperaccumulation of Pb Zn and Cd in herbaceous grown on lead-zinc mining area in Yunnan, China. Environmental International, 31, 755–762.

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to thank the SICTOM (Solid Waste Management Service) of Etueffont (Territoire de Belfort, France) and the ADEME (French Environment and Energy Management Agency) for their technical and financial support. The authors wish to thank the assistance of the two reviewers who contributed to improving this manuscript.

Author information

Correspondence to Lotfi Aleya.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Grisey, E., Laffray, X., Contoz, O. et al. The Bioaccumulation Performance of Reeds and Cattails in a Constructed Treatment Wetland for Removal of Heavy Metals in Landfill Leachate Treatment (Etueffont, France). Water Air Soil Pollut 223, 1723–1741 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-011-0978-3

Download citation

Keywords

  • Landfill leachate
  • Heavy metals
  • Typha latifolia L.
  • Phragmites australis L.
  • Phytoremediation