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Water, Air, & Soil Pollution

, Volume 223, Issue 4, pp 1543–1553 | Cite as

Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Dynamics in Ambient Air and Atmospheric Bulk/Wet Deposition in Downtown Paris (France)

  • Khawla TliliEmail author
  • Pierre Labadie
  • Fabrice Alliot
  • Catherine Bourges
  • Annie Desportes
  • Marc Chevreuil
Article

Abstract

This study reports on the polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) atmospheric dynamics in the dense urban environment of downtown Paris (France). Eight PBDE congeners (BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-100, BDE-99, BDE-154, BDE-153, BDE-183 and BDE-209) were simultaneously analysed in bulk and wet atmospheric deposition, as well as in ambient air (gaseous/particulate phases), twice a month over a 12-month period (May 2008–May 2009). The total air concentration of Σ 8PBDEs ranged between 12 and 185 pg m−3, and the seasonal variations of PBDE levels were controlled by air temperature (except for BDE-209). Regarding bulk deposition, Σ 8PBDE flux was in the range 5–94 ng m−2 day−1, and it was positively correlated with atmospheric particulate phase PBDE concentrations. Meanwhile, the measured wet deposition flux of Σ 8PBDE ranged between 2 and 24 ng m−2 day−1, and its median contribution to bulk deposition was 39% only, which highlights the importance of dry deposition.

Keywords

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers Air Gas–particle partitioning Atmospheric deposition 

Abbreviations

A

The gas-phase PBDE concentrations in picograms per cubic metre

BFRs

Brominated flame retardants

CC

Clausius–Clapeyron

Cpart,rain

The particle-associated contaminant fraction in rainwater in picograms per litre

Cpart,air

The aerosol-bound PBDE concentrations in picograms per cubic metre

EU

European Union

F

The particle-associated PBDE concentrations in picograms per cubic metre

GC-NCI-MS

Gas chromatograph coupled to mass spectrometer operated in negative chemical ionisation mode

Kp

Gas–particle partitioning coefficient

LOD

Limit of detection

LOQ

Limit of quantification

P

Partial pressure in atmosphere

PBDEs

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers

PBT

Persistence bioaccumulation and toxicity

R

The ideal gas constant

T

The temperature in kelvin

TSP

The total suspended particle level in ambient air in micrograms per cubic metre

Vd,p

Dry deposition velocity in centimetres per second

WP

Particle scavenging ratio

∆H

The enthalpy in kilojoules per mole

∆HVAP

The enthalpy of vaporization of the subcooled liquid in kilojoules per mole

∆HOA

The enthalpy of vaporization for octanol–air exchange in kilojoules per mole

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was funded by the Piren Seine programme (http://www.sisyphe.upmc.fr/internet/piren). The authors also wish to acknowledge the Ile-de-France Regional Council for providing PhD funding for K. Tlili (R2DS grant).

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Khawla Tlili
    • 1
    Email author
  • Pierre Labadie
    • 1
    • 2
  • Fabrice Alliot
    • 3
  • Catherine Bourges
    • 3
  • Annie Desportes
    • 3
  • Marc Chevreuil
    • 3
  1. 1.UMR 7619 Sisyphe, CNRS/UPMCUniversité Pierre et Marie CurieParis Cedex 05France
  2. 2.UMR 5805 EPOC, Equipe LPTC, Bâtiment A12Université Bordeaux ITalenceFrance
  3. 3.Laboratoire Hydrologie et Environnement EPHE, UMR 7619 SisypheUniversité Pierre et Marie CurieParis Cedex 05France

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