Vertical Distribution of Carbonyl Sulfide at Mt. Fuji, Japan
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Atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (COS) mixing ratios measured over 24 h during five summer campaigns (2003–2007) in a forest at the foot of Mt. Fuji, Japan (35°21′ N, 138°43′ E; 1,300 m above sea level, a.s.l.) and at the summit (3,776 m a.s.l.) were compared. COS levels were lower at the foot than at the summit during four out of five summer campaigns. The ratios of COS mixing ratios at the foot of Mt. Fuji to those at the summit ranged from 0.7 to 0.9. These results provide evidence of biological consumption of COS in the East Asian atmospheric boundary layer. We also measured the vertical profile of ambient COS below the forest canopy. These data showed a clear gradient of COS mixing ratio: in the lowermost 1 m of the boundary layer, COS mixing ratios decreased markedly downward. Two of the different kinds of vertical distribution of COS presented here support the role of soil as a sink of atmospheric COS described by previous research using dynamic enclosure experiments.
KeywordsCarbonyl sulfide Vertical distribution Free troposphere Ground surface Soil microbes
We thank staff at the Mt. Fuji Weather Station and staff from the nonprofit organization for “Valid Utilization of Mt. Fuji Weather Station” for assisting with air and soil sampling. We also thank all the researchers who gave technical supports and advice for data analysis. All soil sampling was conducted with permission from relevant government authorities. This study was partly supported by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (nos. 416, 14380248, 17201007, 18310020).
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