Water, Air, & Soil Pollution

, Volume 222, Issue 1–4, pp 185–194 | Cite as

Evaluation of Amendments to Control Phosphorus Losses in Runoff from Dairy-Soiled Water

Article

Abstract

Amendments with the potential to reduce phosphorus (P) losses from agricultural grassland arising from the land application of dairy-soiled water (DSW) were investigated. Optimal application rates were studied, and associated costs and feasibility were estimated. First, batch tests were carried out to identify appropriate chemicals or phosphorus sorbing materials to control P in runoff from DSW. Then, the best four treatments were examined in an agitator test. In this test, soil—placed in a beaker—was loaded with DSW or amended DSW at a rate equivalent to 5 mm ha−1 (the maximum permissible application rate of DSW allowable in a 42-day period in Ireland). The soil was overlain with continuously stirred water to simulate runoff on land-applied DSW. Optimum application rates were selected based on percentage removal of dissolved reactive phosphorus in overlying water and the estimated cost of amendment. The costs of the amendments, per cubic metre of DSW, increased in the order: bottom ash (1.55 €), alum (1.67 to 1.92 €), FeCl2·4H2O (3.55 to 8.15 €), and lime (20.31 to 88.65 €). The feasibility of the amendments, taking into account their cost, potential adverse effects, public perception, and their performance, decreased in the order: alum > FeCl2·4H2O > bottom ash > lime. Amendments to DSW could be introduced in critical source areas—areas where high soil test P and direct migration pathways to a receptor overlap.

Keywords

Dairy-soiled water Iron (II) chloride tetrahydride Lime Alum Bottom ash 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was funded under the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food under the Research Stimulus Programme 2007 (RSF 07 525). The authors acknowledge the help of Ray Brennan, Stan Lalor, and Aidan Lawless.

References

  1. ADAS, IGER & SSRC (1994). Low rate irrigation of dilute farm wastes. Report for the National Rivers Authority, R and D no. 262, National Rivers Authority, Bristol.Google Scholar
  2. APHA. (1995). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. Washington: American Public Health Association.Google Scholar
  3. BSI. (1990a). British standard methods of test for soils for civil engineering purposes. Determination of particle size distribution. BS 1377:1990:2. London: British Standards Institution.Google Scholar
  4. BSI. (1990b). Determination by mass-loss on ignition. British standard methods of test for soils for civil engineering purposes. Chemical and electro-chemical tests. BS 1377:1990:3. London: British Standards Institution.Google Scholar
  5. Brennan, R.B., Fenton, O., Rodgers, M., & Healy, M.G. (2011). Evaluation of chemical amendments to control phosphorus losses from dairy slurry. Soil Use and Management (in press).Google Scholar
  6. Byrne, E. (1979). Chemical analysis of agricultural materials—methods used at Johnstown Castle Research Centre. Wexford: An Foras Talúntais.Google Scholar
  7. Chardon, W. J., & Doiroz, J.M. (2008). Fact sheet: Phosphorus immobilizing amendments to soil. COST 869. http://www.cost869.alterra.nl/Fs/FS_immobilization_soil.pdf. Accessed 11 April 2011.
  8. Cottenie, A., & Kiekens, L. (1984). Report of results of the inter-laboratory comparison: Determination of the mobility of heavy metals in soils. In P. L'Hermite & H. D. Ott (Eds.), Processing and use of sewage sludge (pp. 140–149). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Reidel.Google Scholar
  9. Council of the European Union (2000) Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC establishing a framework for community action in the field of water policy. http://www.wfdireland.ie. Accessed 15 November 2010.
  10. Cumby, T. R., Brewer, A. J., & Dimmock, S. J. (1999). Dirty water from dairy farms, I: biochemical characteristics. Bioresource Technology, 67, 155–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dayton, E.A., & Basta, N.T. (2001). Characterisation of drinking water treatment residuals for use as a soil substitute. Water Environment Research, 73 (1), 52–57. http://www.jstor.org/stable/25045460. Accessed 22 November 2010.
  12. Department of the Environment & Department of Agriculture, Food and Forestry. (1996). Code of good agricultural practice to protect waters from pollution by nitrates (p. 57). Dublin: Department of the Environment and Department of Agriculture, Food and Forestry.Google Scholar
  13. Dou, Z., Zhang, G. Y., Stout, W. L., Toth, J. D., & Ferguson, J. D. (2003). Efficacy of alum and coal combustion by-products in stabilizing manure phosphorus. Journal of Environmental Quality, 32, 1490–1497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. EEC (1975). Council Directive concerning the quality required of surface water intended for the abstraction of drinking water in the member states. Council of the European Communities, 75/440/EEC.Google Scholar
  15. ESB (2009). Moneypoint generating station. Annual environmental report for the period 1st of January to 31st December 2008. http://www.epa.ie/licences/lic_eDMS/090151b2802a5f81.pdf. Accessed 11 April 2011.
  16. Fenton, O., Healy, M. G., & Schulte, R. P. O. (2008). A review of remediation and control systems for the treatment of agricultural wastewater in Ireland to satisfy the requirements of the Water Framework Directive. Biology and Environment: Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 108B(2), 69–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fenton, O., Healy, M. G., & Rodgers, M. (2009). Use of ochre from an abandoned acid mine in the SE of Ireland for phosphorus sequestration from soiled water soiled water. Journal of Environmental Quality, 38, 1120–1125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hao, X., Godlinski, F., & Chang, C. (2008). Distribution of phosphorus forms in soil following long-term continuous and discontinuous cattle manure applications. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 72, 90–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hyde, B. P., Carton, O. T., O'Toole, P., & Misslebrook, T. H. (2003). A new inventory of ammonia emissions from Irish agriculture. Atmospheric Environment, 37, 55–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Knudsen, M. T., Kristensen, I. S., Berntsen, J., Petersen, B. M., & Kristensen, E. S. (2006). Estimated N leaching losses for organic and conventional farming in Denmark. Journal of Agricultural Science, 144, 135–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lalor, S. (2008). Economic costs and benefits of adoption of the trailing shoe slurry application method on grassland farms in Ireland. 13th RAMIRAN International conference Potential for simple technology solutions in organic manure management, Albena, Bulgaria.Google Scholar
  22. Lefcourt, A. M., & Meisinger, J. J. (2001). Effect of adding alum or zeolite to dairy slurry on ammonia volatilization and chemical composition. Journal of Dairy Science, 84, 1814–1821.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Martínez-Suller, L., Provolo, G., Carton, O. T., Brennan, D., Kirwan, L., & Richards, K. G. (2010). The composition of dirty water on dairy farms in Ireland. Irish Journal of Agricultural and Food Research, 49(1), 93–97.Google Scholar
  24. Mehlich, A. (1984). Mehlich 3 soil test extractant: A modification of the Mehlich 2 extractant. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 15, 1409–1416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Minogue, D., Murphy, P., French, P., Coughlan, F., & Bolger, T. (2010). Characterisation of soiled water on Irish dairy farms. Ireland: BSAS & Agricultural Research Forum, Belfast, N.Google Scholar
  26. Mulqueen, J., Rodgers, M., & Scally, P. (2004). Phosphorus transfer from soil to surface waters. Agricultural Water Management, 68, 91–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Penn, C. J., Bryant, R. B., Callahan, M. A., & McGrath, J. M. (2011). Use of industrial byproducts to sorb and retain phosphorus. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 42, 633–644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Preedy, N., McTiernan, K., Matthews, R., Heathwaite, L., & Haygarth, P. (2001). Rapid incidental phosphorus transfers from grassland. Journal of Environmental Quality, 30, 2105–2112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pratt, P. F., & Blair, F. L. (1963). Buffer method for estimating lime and sulphur applications for pH control of soils. Soil Science, 93, 329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Regan, J. T., Rodgers, M., Healy, M. G., Kirwan, L., & Fenton, O. (2010). Determining phosphorus and sediment release rates from five Irish tillage soils. Journal of Environmental Quality, 39, 185–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Russell, E. J. (1988). Russell's soil conditions and plant growth (11th ed.). England: Longman Scientific and Technical, John Wiley and Sons, Burnt Mill, Harlow, Essex.Google Scholar
  32. Ryan, M. (1990). Properties of different grades of soiled water and strategies for safe disposal. Proceedings of Seminar Environmental Impact of Landspreading of Wastes (May 30–31), Teagasc Research Centre, Johnstown Castle, Co. Wexford, Ireland.Google Scholar
  33. Ryan, M., Brophy, C., Connolly, J., McNamara, K., & Carton, O. T. (2006). Monitoring of nitrogen leaching on a dairy farm during four drainage seasons. Irish Journal of Agricultural and Food Research, 45, 115–134.Google Scholar
  34. Schulte, R. P. O., Melland, A. R., Fenton, O., Herlihy, M., Richards, K. G., & Jordan, P. (2010). Modelling soil phosphorus decline: Expectations of Water Frame Work Directive policies. Environmental Science & Policy, 13, 472–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. SAS. (2004). SAS/STAT® User's Guide. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc.Google Scholar
  36. Smith, D. R., Moore, P. A., Griffiths, C. L., Daniel, T. C., Edwards, D. R., & Boothe, D. L. (2001). Effects of alum and aluminium chloride on phosphorus runoff from swine manure. Journal of Environmental Quality, 30, 992–998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Statutory Instrument 610 of 2010. European communities (good agricultural practice for protection of waters) regulations 2010. http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/2010/en/si/0610.html. Accessed 11 April 2011.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Teagasc, Johnstown Castle Environmental Research CentreWexfordRepublic of Ireland
  2. 2.Civil Engineering, National University of IrelandGalwayRepublic of Ireland

Personalised recommendations