Hexavalent Chromium Reduction with Zero-Valent Iron (ZVI) in Aquatic Systems
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Hexavalent chromium is a heavy metal used in a variety of industrial applications which is highly toxic to humans, animals, plants and microorganisms. Moreover, it is a well-established human carcinogen by the inhalation route of exposure and a possible human carcinogen by the oral route of exposure. Therefore, it should be removed from contaminated waters. Its reduction to trivalent chromium can be beneficial because a more mobile and more toxic chromium species is converted to a less mobile and less toxic form. During the last two decades, there has been important interest in using zero-valent iron (ZVI) as a Cr(VI)-reducing agent. A considerable volume of research has been carried out in order to investigate the mechanism and kinetics of Cr(VI) reduction with ZVI, as well as the influence of various parameters controlling the reduction efficiency. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to provide updated information regarding the developments and innovative approaches in the use of ZVI for the treatment of Cr(VI)-polluted waters.